battery electric vehicles vs internal combustion engine vehicles ppt

We have researched the Battery Electric Vehicles Vs Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Ppt. Hence, this article on advantages of electric vehicles over internal combustion engines. Below, in this article, you will find internal combustion engine vs electric motor efficiency. Read on to discover them.

Since the earliest days of the automobile, most cars have run on gasoline that gets exploded in minute quantities within an enclosed space inside a car’s engine—a process we know as combustion. This combustion moves pistons, which—via connecting rods—rotate an engine crankshaft, which in turn drives the rotation of one of a vehicle’s axles (usually the rear axle). This type of engine is known as an internal combustion engine.

internal combustion engine vs electric motor efficiency

Battery Electric Vehicles Vs Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Ppt

By contrast, an electric motor uses electricity stored in batteries to power electromagnets which ultimately drive the vehicle axle (or axles, in cases where there are multiple electric motors).

The difference between a combustion engine and an electric engine

Internal combustion engines can differ in a number of factors such as the type and number of parts, energy storage, refuelling and requirements for suppliers of electric motors.

How do the built-in components differ between a combustion engine and an electric engine?

Because generating motion via the process of combustion is more complex, a combustion engine necessarily has many more parts and takes up much more space than an electric engine. Electric engines on average may have something like 20 parts, whereas combustion engines may have more than 2,000. According to the electric motor definition above, there’s no waste material generated by driving because there’s no disposable “fuel.” In a combustion engine, the disposable fuel is gasoline, and it must be stored (carefully, as it can ignite), flowed in just the right amount to the engine, processed (combusted), and then its leftovers must be exhausted out of the motor and the vehicle after combustion takes place.

While an electric engine has no fuel, it does utilize batteries, and these batteries take up space and are heavy. Fortunately, however, the batteries can be spread out in a flat layer at the floor of a vehicle (most are configured this way), thus creating much more space in an electric vehicle (EV) than one with a combustion engine.

Costs for development and production of battery packs are the reason for high prices of electric vehicles.

Energy storage – differences between tank and battery

Some people are under the impression that an electric motor requires more energy to operate than a combustion engine, but it takes the same amount of energy to make two identical vehicles drive at the same speed. The difference is that with an electric motor, very little energy is wasted, whereas combustion is by nature a highly inefficient process where much energy is lost along the way. Therefore, it’s the gas-powered vehicle that needs more energy.

Replenishing gas vs. electricity

There’s also the matter of replenishing the resources that are needed for both a combustion engine and electric engine. A car can only store so much gasoline; every so often, a driver must stop at a gas station and pay for gas, which is sold by the liter or gallon. Fortunately, this process only takes a few minutes. With electric motors, battery charging can take place wherever there’s a charging station. Unlike gas stations, EV charging stations vary for types of EVs. There are a finite number of charging stations in most countries around the world (some cities may not even have a single charger for the EV a person is driving!). Although many EV charging stations use “rapid” chargers, recharging at one of these usually still takes between 20 and 30 minutes (some companies are working on “ultra”-rapid chargers that will allow a charge to take place in around 5 minutes, but these likely will not appear on roadsides for several more years).

Demands on suppliers

Whereas combustion engines necessitate more maintenance, EVs by contrast contain far fewer parts, and they will generally undergo much less wear and tear than the components of combustion engines. In a combustion engine, more components mean more processes that can go wrong and more parts that can wear out or break down. With EVs, the parts that are most critical to daily operation are the batteries, and these may be able to be replaced at the end of their life if an owner so chooses (although this is not likely to be the case as batteries are expected to last 10 or more years on average).

Because of this, many part supplier companies will either need to consolidate or move into different sectors of the automotive business as electric motor maintenance for EVs will be less onerous and necessitate less aftermarket support than combustion engines in gas-powered vehicles

advantages of electric vehicles over internal combustion engines

If You’re Considering an Electric Car, Be Sure to Do Your Homework

Just a few years ago, many people may have never seen an electric car in person, unless they lived in a place like California where electric vehicles are popular and readily available. Now, several automakers offer compelling electric vehicles (EVs) nationwide. Today, it’s not uncommon to see a Tesla Model 3 regardless of where you live.

As electric cars become less expensive and widely available, more people are interested in buying them. There are many reasons – aside from the environmental benefits – to switch to an EV, such as superb efficiency, cheaper energy costs, less maintenance, and better overall performance. However, making the transition from gas to electric is a big step. Before you take the plunge, be sure to do your homework and ask the right questions.Closeup of electric vehicleWestend61 / Getty Images

We’ve compiled a list of the 10 most important considerations for potential EV owners, listed in the form of questions. While some include complete answers, others depend on various factors, including which EV you choose, where you live, and how you plan to use the car. 

Read through the following information to decide if electric car ownership is something you’re really serious about. If you decide to move forward, be sure to get all of your questions answered before completing the transaction.

Read on to learn if picking up an EV is the right choice for you.

1. Does the Car Have Enough Range?

Many of today’s EVs offer over 200 miles of range on a charge, though there are still some that have much less. Tesla is currently the only automaker that offers EVs with over 300 miles of range. The Tesla Model S currently holds the record, with up to an EPA-rated 402 miles per charge.

With 200 miles of range, most people aren’t going to experience range anxiety during their daily commutes. Keep in mind that range varies regardless of the EPA’s estimates. Many factors impact a car’s range, such as your speed, your driving habits, the weather, and the car’s climate control. It’s wise to anticipate having less range than the car’s EPA estimate, just to be safe. If you travel over 200 miles on a daily basis, you may want to steer clear of most EVs. 

2. Can I Charge My Electric Vehicle at Home?

One of the most convenient aspects of EV ownership is charging at home. At the end of the day, you simply plug the car in. When you wake in the morning, it’s ready to go. This means no more smelly hands from pumping gas, no more standing out in the cold, and no more pulling your car out of your garage to warm it up.

With that said, there are several important considerations. You can charge your EV using a standard 110-volt wall outlet (Level 1 charging), but it’s going to take some time. Level 1 charging adds about 4 miles of range per hour. If you don’t use many miles of range each day, this may work for you. However, if you deplete a full 250 miles of range, it will take several days to recharge this way.Family preparing for road trip while charging vehicle in a home drivewayMaskot / Getty Images

Most EV owners hire an electrician to install a 240-volt outlet in their garage. This allows for Level 2 charging, which can add 25 miles of range per charging hour. Make sure to find out how much it will cost to add 240-volt service at your home. 

If you don’t have a garage, you can plug in outside. If you have a 240-volt outlet installed outside, make sure it’s up to code, and that your charging cord or station is designed for outdoor use.

Learn more about charging an EV at home »

3. How Much Does Electricity Cost?

Just like gasoline, the price of electricity varies depending on where you live. The average price of electricity in the U.S. is 13.28 cents per kilowatt-hour. In Louisiana, you’ll pay 9.5 cents, compared to 19.79 cents in California. Regardless of where you live or where you charge your EV, electricity will still cost you much less than gas for a competitor in the same segment. According to the EPA, fuel costs for a BMW 3 Series are over three times more expensive than charging a Tesla Model 3. However, there are details you should know in order to save the most money. 

Charging at home is typically cheaper than public charging, though some public charging units are free. Electricity prices can vary based on the time of day. It’s usually much less expensive to charge overnight or on the weekend than it is to charge at peak times, such as weekday afternoons and evenings. Your local utility company can break it all down for you. Some utility providers even offer special plans to accommodate EV owners.

4. Are There Public Charging Stations Nearby?

While home charging is the most convenient way to juice up your electric car, you’ll probably need to charge on the road at some point. Some public charging stations are Level 2, but many offer DC fast charging, which allows you to charge your car rapidly. Some EVs can be charged to 80% in less than 30 minutes at a fast-charging station. However, there are many factors involved. 

Make sure you find out if the EV you’re planning on picking up is capable of fast-charging, as well as how many miles you can expect to add in a given time. In addition, you should locate the charging stations in your area and on your typical routes, and then determine what type of charging they support. Closeup of public EV charging station signAtiwat Studio / Getty Images

There are many resources available, including PlugShare.com and PlugInAmerica.org. Charging networks, such as EVgo, ChargePoint, and Electrify America also have their own interactive maps. Tesla owners have exclusive access to the Supercharger network, which includes fast-charging stations strategically located nationwide.

5. Can I Take My EV on Road Trips?

Any electric car is capable of road-tripping. Whether it’s convenient or viable comes down to your route and your car’s range. If your EV offers 200 or 300 miles of range, you’ll probably be ready for a bathroom and snack break by the time you’re getting low on battery power. 

There shouldn’t be an issue mapping out your trip and making sure there’s a charging station every three hours or so – especially if you’re traveling on major highways. However, you may have to diverge from the usual route to make sure you can DC fast-charge at each stop. Otherwise, your travel time will be extended significantly.

Many EV owners also own a gas car that they use for family road trips. If you don’t go on long road trips often, you shouldn’t worry too much. You could always rent a car for the annual family road trip and still save money using your EV as your daily driver.

6. What Electric Vehicle Incentives are Available?

The federal U.S. government offers electric car buyers a $7,500 tax credit. The full amount only applies to new, fully electric cars. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are also eligible for the credit, though it reduces based on the size of the car’s battery. Longer range PHEVs like the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid and Honda Clarity Plug-In Hybrid qualify for the full tax credit, but the Toyota Prius Prime and Kia Niro Plug-In Hybrid are only eligible for about $4,500.

Not all EVs qualify for the tax credit. The incentive phases out in increments after an automaker sells 200,000 electric vehicles. For example, Tesla and GM EVs are no longer eligible. It’s also important to note that not everyone’s tax situation will allow them to take advantage of the credit. Before buying an EV, be sure to talk to a tax professional to make sure you’ll get the credit. You can’t get the credit if you lease an EV, but the dealership can get it and apply it to the lease discounts. However, that’s not always the case. If you plan to lease, find out if the tax credit is applied or if the dealership is planning to pocket the credit.closeup of EV being charged with US currency overlaidStadtratte / Getty Images

States and cities also offer credits and incentives in addition to the federal tax credit. Make sure to do your homework to find out if you can get a local discount, financial assistance for a home charging system, or any other local incentive for purchasing an electric car.

7. Should I Buy a New or Used Electric Car?

Electric cars are expensive, so buying used will save you money. Interestingly, all new EVs are pricier than new gas-powered cars, but many used EVs are much cheaper than most used gas cars. This is because most EVs depreciate more rapidly than traditional cars due to the tax incentives and limited demand. However, this isn’t true of Tesla’s vehicles, which tend to hold their value better than most cars. Many used electric cars also have low mileage due to being relatively new and having range limitations.

Buying new guarantees your car will have a full warranty, the longest electric range currently available, and up-to-date tech and safety features. While batteries don’t degrade quickly, buying new still gives you the peace of mind that your battery is in tip-top condition. Finally, the federal EV tax credit and other electric car incentives aren’t available on the purchase of used EVs. 

Many of the same pros and cons of buying a new or used gas-only vehicle applies to EVs, too. Read our guide on choosing between a new or used model to learn more.

8. Is it Better to Buy or Lease an EV?

If you’re in the market for a new EV, you’ll have to decide whether to buy or lease. EV leasing is much more popular than buying since electric cars are so expensive. While buying a car, especially with a low interest rate, is generally a more sound financial decision, it’s not a good idea if you can barely afford the monthly payment. 

A $40,000 car loan with zero APR over five years will set you back almost $700 per month. You can often lease that same EV with a monthly payment that’s half that. Moreover, new electric cars are coming to market regularly, and current models are getting better every year. Many EVs get new technology and more range with each new model year. Leasing assures that you can take advantage of the newest technology or swap your car for an even better EV every few years. If your tax situation won’t allow you to get the federal electric car tax credit, you may benefit from the dealership applying it to your lease as a discount.EV charging at a car dealership lotMaskot / Getty Images

In the end, you have to ask yourself how long you plan to keep your electric car. Will you eventually pay off the loan? If you plan to sell it, realize that EV resale value may work against you. However, leasing means having a monthly car payment for a long period of time. Also, exceeding the car’s mileage restrictions or damaging the car may end up costing you when it’s time to turn it in.

Choosing to buy or lease an EV is similar to any vehicle. Our article on buying versus leasing can provide you with more information.

9. What Do I Need to Know About EV Maintenance?

Overall, electric cars require less maintenance than gas-powered cars. There are virtually no fluids to change, and the friction brakes last longer since regenerative braking assists with stopping the car. An EV’s battery and motor have the potential to last longer than the life of the car. In the rare event that an EV’s battery needs replacing, it can cost anywhere between $5,000 and $16,000, and that doesn’t include labor. For comparison, replacing the engine in a gas car can cost between $5,000 and $10,000 depending on the size of the engine and the hours of labor.

Fortunately, federal regulations require that automakers cover an electric vehicle’s battery for eight years or 100,000 miles. Keep in mind warranties can be packed with exceptions and exclusions, so make sure you understand exactly what’s covered.

10. How Much Does it Cost to Insure an Electric Car?

Insurance tends to cost more for electric cars than traditional cars. However, it has nothing to do with the vehicle’s safety. Instead, it’s because EVs are more expensive than gas-powered cars. More expensive cars typically cost more to repair. In addition, insurance companies take into account the high cost of EV battery packs. If an accident causes damage to the pack, and it needs to be replaced, it’s one of the most expensive repairs insurance companies will have to cover. 

On average, you’ll pay 23% more to insure an electric car than a gas car. Some insurance companies are more forgiving than others, and rates vary widely depending on many variables. For example, State Farm’s rates don’t seem to increase much for electric cars, but Allstate charges a hefty premium. Regardless of the car you drive, be sure to shop around for the best insurance rate. Our auto insurance guide can help you find the best options to insure your EV.

most reliable electric and hybrid cars

10. Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (2014-present)

Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV

Reliability rating 97.8%

Although 14% of Outlander PHEVs suffered a fault, most of these were minor niggles relating to bodywork, interior trim and non-engine electrics. All cars could still be driven and a third were repaired in a day or less, with two-thirds of work done for free under warranty. Some owners were charged up to £750, though.


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Read our full Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV review >>

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8=. BMW i3 (2013-present)

BMW i3 2018 front cornering

Reliability rating 97.9%

Just under 13% of i3s have caused their owners trouble in the past 12 months, with these mostly suffering from problems with their infotainment/sat-nav systems and interior trim. All of the affected cars could still be driven, with a third fixed in less than a day, but another third took up to a week and the rest more than a week to put right. At least all repairs were done under warranty.

Read our full BMW i3 review >>

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8=. Honda CR-V Hybrid (2018-present)

Honda CR-V Hybrid

Reliability rating 97.9%

Only 8% of CR-V Hybrids went wrong and non-engine electrics were the only problem area. All cars could still be driven and were fixed the same day under warranty. 

Read our full Honda CR-V review >>

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7. Toyota Corolla (2018-present)

Toyota Corolla Hybrid

Reliability rating 98.4%

Just 5% of Corolla owners reported a fault with their car and the only problematic area was the 12-volt battery. Although all cars were off the road for more than a week, all work was done for free. 

Read our full Toyota Corolla review >>

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6. Hyundai Kona Electric (2018-present)

Hyundai Kona Electric 64kWh

Reliability rating 98.5%

Just 7% of Kona Electrics went wrong, with the ancillary battery being the only area affected. All of those cars could still be driven and the repair work was done under warranty, although this took more than a week in each case.

Read our full Hyundai Kona Electric review >>


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5. Lexus RX (2016-present)

Lexus RX L

Reliability rating 99.1%

A mere 4% of the RX Hybrids we were told about had developed a fault in the previous 12 months. Non-engine electrics were the only issue and all work was done for free, in most cases in a day or less. 

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4. Toyota RAV4 (2019-present)

Toyota RAV4

Reliability rating 99.2%

Toyota is renowned for its reliability, and the latest RAV4 shows why; just 7% of cars went wrong, with the battery being the only area that was affected. All of the cars could still be driven and were repaired in a day or less, and all work was carried out for free.

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3. Lexus NX (2014-present)

Used Lexus NX 14-present

Reliability rating 99.3%

Only 6% of NX owners reported a fault on their car, with issues with the infotainment/sat-nav being the most common, followed by the bodywork. All of the cars remained driveable and were put right in a day or less, with the cost covered by the warranty.

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2. Tesla Model 3 (2019-present)

Tesla Model 3 front

Reliability rating 99.4%

Tesla’s newest model is not only the most dependable executive car but also the highest-scoring electric car. Just 5% of cars suffered a fault, according to owners. What’s more, they could all still be driven and were fixed in a day or less at no cost to owners.

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1. Toyota Yaris Hybrid (2011-2020)

New Toyota Yaris Hybrid vs Renault Zoe

Reliability rating 99.5%

As reliable as the Model 3 is, it’s beaten to top spot by the Toyota Yaris Hybrid. This small car is incredibly dependable, with a mere 5% of the cars we were told about having suffered a fault. Again, all of the affected cars could still be driven and were fixed in a day or less for free.

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