bifacial solar panels price

In the market for the best Bifacial Solar Panels Price and bifacial solar panels for sale? Bifacial solar panels have solar energy cells on both the front and back side of the solar panel. This allows solar energy to be collected on the backside of the panel and enhance the energy output of the solar energy system. Traditional solar panels utilize a layer of solar cells on the front side of the solar module, and have a white or black back-sheet on the back. Under the correct installation conditions, bifacial gain can more completely take advantage of solar energy collection by capturing light through this dual energy capture process- Both on the front side, and the back side of the solar panel.

Bifacial solar panels utilize technology across modern advancements in solar module and cell development, such as, high watt modules, higher efficiency panels, half cut cell designs and more. Many solar panel manufacturers such as LG Solar, Longi, and Canadian Solar are producing new panels over 300w+, with 400w+ modules on the market. High watt solar panels allow you to obtain further cost advantages through both lowering the bill of materials and driving down installation costs.

bifacial solar panels for sale

The higher efficiency rating of solar modules not only increases your overall energy output, but the output of your solar energy system under less than ideal sun conditions. While half-cut cell technology reduces the risk of “hot spots” developing on your modules, extending the lifetime of the module and increasing the output of your modules.

Bifacial solar panel technology takes advantage of all three of these technologies, and combines them into a singular module, capable of producing up to 30% more energy output. Bifacial solar panels are designed with solar cells on both sides of the module, unlike traditional modules. If you are looking to maximize the output of your solar energy system, bifacial solar panels may be one of the best solar panel options for you.

To find out more about Bifacial Solar Panels, we will be analyzing the following:

  • Bifacial Solar Panel Technology
  • Recommended Installation Conditions
  • Bifacial Solar Panel Comparison
  • Solaris Recommendations

Bifacial Solar Panel Technology

Bifacial modules double-sided solar cell design and transparent back-sheet allow light to be captured by both sides of the solar panel. This is accomplished by the backside of the panel capturing light that is reflected onto the underside of the module off the ground beneath the panel. This means that there must be enough space between the underside of the panel and the ground to allow light to reflect onto the module.

Bifacial panels are listed at their front-side output rating, expected bifacial output varies by solar panel and manufacturer as well as environmental conditions. For example, Canadian Solar can achieve up to 30% bifacial gain but may only achieve 5% depending on outside lighting conditions. Bifacial gain is largely determined by the amount of light that hits the back of your modules.

Bifacial modules are manufactured to be compatible with market ready power converting solutions like string inverters and microinverters. Furthermore, bifacial panels perform better under low light conditions. LG Solar’s NeON2 bifacial panels have been tested to produce up to 64.4% more energy over three-day period following a snowstorm. Their study also showed that the modules performed slightly better or on par with single sided modules during days in which it was actively snowing.

LG Solar Neon2 Bifacial Gain

Recommended Installation Conditions

Due to the fact that bifacial panels obtain their gain from reflected light on the back side of the panel, they are not recommended for the majority of roof mount installations. For flush mount and most tilt mount roof top solutions, there is not enough space between the module and the roof face to reflect light onto the underside of the panel. Therefore, the dual energy yield will either under-perform, or not perform at all. Installations using flush mount solutions should avoid using bifacial modules, while tilt mount installs should review their site and roof for feasibility.

Bifacial modules work best for ground mount, top of pole and awning installations. Bifacial gain is further enhanced if the surface that the system is installed on is reflective. Homeowners interested in utilizing pergolas or deck overhangs may also benefit from dual-sided technology.

The modules work well under a number of extreme environmental conditions. As mentioned in the case of LG, bifacial modules outperform traditional modules in the days following a snowstorm. This is because the underside of the panel actively captures the light reflected from the white of the snow and produce energy. As an added bonus, this will also heat the panel and assist in melting snow on the front side of the module.

LG vs Longi Solar Bifacial Panel Comparison

Bifacial solar panels are currently being produced by a number of tier one manufacturers. To better understand your options, we have selected two bifacial modules at different price points: Longi Solar (value-based) and LG Solar (premium).

The way manufacturers measure their bifacial gain varies, as noted in the chart below. To best interpret your potential output, consider the differences in the ratings. Also note efficiency ratings when doing so, for example, the back panel efficiency rating from LG Solar is much higher than the Longi module. LG Solar bifacial modules on average offer up to 30% more power generation while Longi Solar’s bifacial modules offer up to 25% power generation.

Bifacial Solar Panels Price

Nominal PowerOpt. Voltage (Vmp)Opt. Current (Imp)Price per WattEfficiencyDocuments
LG Solar – LG400N2T-J5
400W (Bifacial Gain 425W / 450W)41.5V9.65 Amps (Bifacial Gain 10.24V / 10.84V)$0.8519.3% (Bifacial Gain 20.5% / 21.7%Pricing
Specifications
Warranty
Longi Solar – LR6-72BP-360360W Front / 270W Back39.3V Front / 39.8V Back9.16A Front / 6.79A Back$0.5018.3% Front / 13.7% BackPricing
Specifications
Warranty

*Price per watt based on pricing as of the posting of this blog.

LG Solar solar panels come with 25 year linear performance and 25 year product warranties, while Longi matches LG’s linear performance warranty, and a 10 year product warranty. In addition, LG modules are guaranteed to produce 90.08% of their nameplate power at the 25 year mark, while Longi guarantees 83.8% of their nameplate power. Longi comes in at a lower initial price point, averaging between $0.30 – $0.40/watt less than LG Solar.

When compared to non-bifacial modules, both bifacial panels have the potential to output more energy daily, and throughout the solar modules lifetime. For installation sites that are exposed to high snow loads annually, ground mount bifacial installations benefit from the reflective light of the snow, and drastically increase performance during the winter months. If these conditions fit your installation site, you may benefit from bifacial modules and require less solar panels and overall equipment if you use bifacial.

Winner: LG Solar

While Longi Solar’s value based cost makes it more affordable than LG Solar’s bifacial modules, LG offers more out of the box power, higher efficiency, and the longest and most extensive warranty period. This offers the potential for a greater return on your investment over time.

Solaris Recommendations

Bifacial Ground Mount Installation

Bifacial solar panels should be considered for ground mounted solar installations, particularly for sites that have high energy demand like commercial installations and utility scale projects. It is further recommended that the surface underneath the module be at least semi-reflective, this will ensure that you get the most out of the back-end of the module and the most bifacial gain. The price point of bifacial modules correlates with average price points for the brand.

Bifacial solar panels are compatible with both string and microinverter solar energy systems, and are compatible with most solar racking manufacturers. However, there may be exceptions regarding racking, frame-less bifacial modules require specialty racking equipment, namely, specialized mid and end clamps. IronRidge carries some frame-less racking solutions, customized racking solutions may be necessary from some bifacial modules.

Like all microinverter installations, you should plan out the possibility of clipping, which may be more likely with microinverter systems on a modular level, especially when the sun is at its peak. We recommend using the highest rated microinverter that is compatible with your bifacial module, in the case of Enphase Energy, the IQ7PLUS or the IQ7A are recommended over the IQ7 microinverters for this reason.

We recommend bifacial modules for installation sites that can benefit for bifacial gain, meaning, that residential homeowners with roof mount installations are advised to seek other solar panel solutions. Under the right conditions, bifacial modules can produce more power with less equipment, saving in both initial investment cost, and increasing your return on investment.

Who are the top bifacial solar panel manufacturers?

‘Bifacial’ is definitely the new buzzword in the solar industry. Bifacial panels have become the topic of discussion at solar conferences and trade shows.

Some solar companies are ahead of the curve and have succeeded in achieving high power output from their bifacial product lines. 

These are the major players in bifacial solar panel manufacturing:

LG

Korean electronics conglomerate LG is currently dominating the market by offering an energy-efficient bifacial module with a front system of 390 W. Their NeON 2 BiFacial solar panels have an efficiency of up to 18.7%. These panels absorb sunlight from the front and rear sides via a transparent back sheet.

Canadian Solar

Canadian Solar has combined advanced bifacial cell technology with its double glass module manufacturing expertise to develop the ultramodern BiKu bifacial panels. These modules feature a well-engineered design, an automated manufacturing process, and stringent BOM quality testing. Canadian Solar claims that BiKu bifacial panels produce up to 30% additional power from the back side. These solar systems are highly durable, as they are made with anodized aluminum alloy frames.

Sunpreme

Sunpreme’s Maxima GxB 520 modules are made up of HCT cells in a frameless double glass structure. They are known for high power yield with a 20% backside power boost and over 600 W of bifacial output. The thin double-glass construction of Sunpreme’s solar panels provides appealing aesthetics that Sunpreme claims are well-suited for carports, roofs, and canopies. Sunpreme’s bifacial panels are free from light-induced degradation (LID) or potential induced degradation (PID).

JinkoSolar

JinkoSolar offers Bifacial 72M, a 72-cell module generating 380 W power. It increases systems’ output by 5-25%, depending on various reflective conditions. The unique frameless design of Jinko solar panels greatly reduces the possibility of the PID effect. Also, it is designed for high voltage (up to 1500 VDC) systems. The system also claims only 0.5% yearly power degradation, with 30 years of warranty.

Another one of their panels, the popular Swan module, has combined Cheetah bifacial cells and DuPont Tedlar PVF transparent film, allowing them to achieve an output of up to 400 W on the front side and a 20% energy gain from its rear side.

Other key market players for bifacial solar panels

Here’s a list of many other prominent market players who are involved in manufacturing advanced bifacial solar technology.

  • Trina Solar
  • AE Solar
  • Suntech
  • LONGi Solar
  • Yingli Solar
  • Sunpreme Inc.
  • Prism Solar Technologies, Inc.
  • SoliTek
  • JA Solar

Major solar projects using bifacial solar technology

A number of large-scale solar projects built with bifacial solar modules have come online recently, and there are several more in the pipeline. These projects are an indication of how the bifacial solar industry is booming globally. Here are some noteworthy developments:

  • In June 2019, Canadian Solar was awarded a Brazilian solar power project to install, which was around 130,000 BiHiKu modules (of 51.1 MWp capacity)
  • In Feb 2019, Sunpreme and Tigo Energy completed a 750 kW bifacial system project for a commercial carport in the California Bay Area
  • LONGi is working on a 224MW capacity power generation project in Mitchell County, Georgia. It is the largest “bifacial+tracker” power generation project in the United States

The positive attitudes of industry experts and ongoing project announcements show that the sun is shining brightly on bifacial solar panels.

Bifacial panels clearly have a promising future in the utility solar market. But what about when it comes to residential solar? Are they a good fit for homes?

Are bifacial panels a good choice for homes?

Short answer: no.

The biggest reason for this is bifacial solar panels don’t work well when installed on rooftops. Rooftop solar panels are mounted on frames which leave just a few inches between the panel and the roof surface. This means that very little reflected sunlight reaches the rear panel face, restricting bifacial solar production.

They require a large amount of space in order to avoid shading and to absorb the reflected light properly, making them less suitable for residential properties where real estate is limited.

Finally, bifacial solar panels currently come with a significant cost premium, and in residential setups they are unlikely to produce the additional power required to justify their higher price.

This means that traditional monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar panels are still the most cost-effective option for residential installations.

HOW TO BUY SOLAR PANELS

https://apis.google.com/u/0/se/0/_/+1/fastbutton?usegapi=1&size=small&annotation=inline&psa_not_processed=&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.altestore.com&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.altestore.com%2Fhowto%2Fhow-to-buy-solar-panels-a103%2F&gsrc=3p&ic=1&jsh=m%3B%2F_%2Fscs%2Fapps-static%2F_%2Fjs%2Fk%3Doz.gapi.en.86MLdKEg0Ug.O%2Fam%3DwQE%2Fd%3D1%2Fct%3Dzgms%2Frs%3DAGLTcCNVMDBrJcVLxr_OXSrhwhVXLtLCsQ%2Fm%3D__features__#_methods=onPlusOne%2C_ready%2C_close%2C_open%2C_resizeMe%2C_renderstart%2Concircled%2Cdrefresh%2Cerefresh&id=I0_1612517206792&_gfid=I0_1612517206792&parent=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.altestore.com&pfname=&rpctoken=35442051
How to Buy Solar Panels

Are you thinking about buying a solar panel system but don’t know where to start? You came to the right place!SEI PV Design ManualA Really Great Read

Before we dive in to the specifics of solar panels (a.k.a. PV modules, solar electric panels), let us remind you that energy efficiency and conservation are the best ways to reduce your energy foot print and your electrical bill (see our Energy Efficiency and Your Home article). Please actively explore and incorporate all avenues of efficiency before pursuing a home solar panel system. That being said, solar power is an exciting clean-energy option that is becoming more and more popular. Solar electricity is a fascinating topic. To really feed your curiosity, we highly recommend the book PHOTOVOLTAICS: DESIGN & INSTALL MANUAL.

What shapes, sizes and types do solar panels come in?

Solar panels vary in length and width and are often about 2 inches thick. They are generally about 30 pounds or less, but the larger solar panels can be cumbersome to carry onto the roof. We carry a wide selection of solar panels for home use: framed, foldable, and rollable.

  • Framed solar panels are the industry standards. They are the most cost effective and applicable for most home solar panels applications.
  • Foldable solar panels are lightweight (less than 5 pounds) and can fold up and fit easily in a backpack.
  • Flexible (or rollable) solar panels are also lightweight but bulkier than the foldable panels. Many people use these rollable solar panels on boats because they are durable and can be easily stowed after use.

Generally thin-film laminate type of solar panels (foldable & flexible) are more expensive per watt and require more square footage to produce the same wattage of an equally sized framed module.

What size solar panels do I need for my home and how many?

The number of solar panels you will need depends primarily upon the amount of electricity you are trying to produce and the insolation in your area. Solar insolation can be thought of as the number of hours in the day that the solar panel will produce its rated output. This is not equivalent to the number of daylight hours. Read more about insolation in our How To section and get an idea of the insolation in your area: Solar Insolation Map – USA.

You’ll find solar panels in a variety of wattages. Watts are the main measure of a solar panel, along with nominal voltage. For a rough idea of how many watts of solar panels you will need for your home, start by dividing your electrical usage (in watt-hours per day) by the solar insolation in your area. Bump that number up by 30-50% (to cover system inefficiencies) and you’ll have an idea of the number of watts of solar panels total you will need. If that number is more than 1000 watts, you are talking about $4K to $8K or more for the solar electric system. (Could we take this opportunity to mention the importance of energy efficiency again?!) If you could still use a little help with the math, please give us a call and tell us how much electricity you are trying to produce (in kwh/month or watt-hours/ day) and your location, and we’ll help get you started.

What types of solar panels are there?

Most solar panels can be classified as monocrystalline, polycrystalline or amorphous. This is based on the silicon structure that comprises the cell. It’s not quite as complicated as it sounds. Basically a 100 watt monocrystalline solar panel should have the same output as a 100 watt polycrystalline solar panel and a 100 watt amorphous solar panel. The main difference is the amount of area which the solar panel occupies. Because the monocrystalline structure is more efficient than amorphous (and only very slighlty more so than polycrystalline) in turning sunlight into electricity, the amorphous solar panel of the same wattage will be physically larger. By the way, when talking about efficiency of solar panels, keep in mind that solar panel efficiency is still only about 13-18% efficient in turning sunlight into electricity. Often amorphous solar panels are less expensive than the crystalline panels. If space is not an issue, then an amorphous panel could be a great option. Additionally, amorphous solar panels perform better than crystalline solar panels in very hot temperatures and are also slightly more tolerant of partial shading.

Solar Energy for Home Heating & Cooling

Please keep in mind that solar panels produce electricity, and should not be used to produce electricity for heating or cooling sources. If heating is your main issue, be sure to check out Solar Air Heaters and Solar Water Heaters. Solar air heating and solar water heating are examples of solar thermal technologies which produce heat, but not electricity (and are much more cost effective than solar panels). While solar electric panels are not an economically feasible choice to power your air conditioning, a solar panel can power an attic fan that can help reduce the amount of time you use your AC.

Locating your Panels – Very Important!

A key factor in the effective use of solar electricity is proper placement of the solar panels. Make sure to locate the panels where they will receive full sunlight between the hours of 10 am and 3 pm. Be sure that the solar panels will not be shaded by shadows from tree branches, chimneys, other structures, etc. Once again – NO SHADE! You will be mounting the solar panels on the roof, the ground or a pole. For more information on the proper placement solar electric panels, please checkout the How To for Solar Panel Mounting article.

How Long will Solar Panels Last?

Solar panels use the sun’s light to generate electricity. They generate electricity during sunny daylight hours and can be used in a system with batteries so that the electricity can be used at other times as well. Also known as Photovoltaic (PV) modules, solar panels are the main component of a solar electric system. Along with an inverter, mounting system, batteries and Solar Charge Controllers, solar panels can produce electricity to power the energy efficient appliances and lights and appliances in most households. Solar panels themselves generally last over 25 years, and require little maintenance. Many of the first solar panels produced in the 50s are still in use today. Many of the solar panels have a 20 year warranty or more. A common warranty states that the panels will produce at least 80% of their rated power after 20 years.

What else will I Need with a Solar Panel?

In addition to the solar panel mounting hardware, there are additional components that you will need for a safe installation. If you plan on using just one solar panel in a battery based system (an off-grid system), you will need a solar charge controller and overcurrent protection to protect each major component of your system: solar panels, solar charge controller, deep cycle batteries, and inverter. If you plan on using more solar panels in your system, you will also need to safely wire the photovoltaic solar panels together and to the charge controller. An easy and safe way to do this is by using MC (multi contact) connectors. These connectors connect to the cables coming from the solar panel and can be cut in half to expose bare wire. Combiner & pass-through boxes are used to collect the bare ends of the wire from multiple solar panels; then from the combiner box you can run just one set of wires to the solar charge controller. For each series string of solar panels, you will need an appropriate sized breaker.

That’s a lot of components to figure out! If after reading all this you are a little confused but even more excited about solar energy, what’s next? Well, you can read more about solar panel systems. Also, our AltE U offers in-person workshops in Massachusetts and Ohio, as well as free education online videos. If you are considering installing your own solar electric system or installing PV (photovoltaic panels) as a business, be sure to check out our series of three classes beginning with our Basic Photovoltaic and Site Assessment class.

What are the pros and cons of DIY solar panels? 

Before we jump into the 11 steps for a DIY solar panel installation, I think it’s worth going over the pros and cons. 

After all, a DIY solar is a big and costly commitment. It’s best to figure out whether or not DIY solar is right for you before you’re too heavily invested in the process!

pros and cons of diy solar systems

Pro: Cost savings 

At the risk of stating the obvious, the biggest reason people opt for a DIY solar panel installation is to save money on the upfront installation cost. 

Solar panel systems have dropped in price — by over 70% in the last decade alone — but they still represent a significant financial investment for most homeowners. 

Right now, the average cost of solar panel installation by a professional solar company is around $3.00 per watt. For a typical 5 kW (5,000 watt) solar panel system, that works out to $15,000.

On the other hand, you should be able to buy a 5 kW DIY solar panel kit for under $2.00 per watt. Assuming you perform all of the work by yourself (i.e. no contractors for any of the tasks), the total cost of the 5 kW DIY solar project would cost no more than $10,000.

That works out to a potential savings of over $5,000 by choosing DIY over a professional solar installation. 

Of course, the exact cost difference between the two is affected by many variables. Factors that can affect costs include system size, your location, your choice of brands, your roof layout, your state and local incentives, and more. And you’d also want to take into account 26% solar tax credit would apply for both a professional installation and a DIY job, reducing the cost and thus the price differential between the two methods of going solar. 

That said, there is without question a substantial price difference between buying a DIY solar panel kit, and hiring a solar company to complete the installation for you. 

Pro: DIY satisfaction

If you’re someone who really enjoys a big and challenging DIY project, then a solar installation might be what you’re looking for. 

You will have to draw on many different skill sets, such as the ability to negotiate municipal processes, financial planning, proficiency with power tools, electrical work, and even tax accounting.  

And there are many stages to the solar installation — researching, planning, shopping, permitting, installation, electric wiring, and monitoring. 

This is a project that will keep you busy for a while. 

Con: It’s a lot of time and effort 

I know, in the point immediately above this one I framed the challenging nature of a solar installation as a positive. Yes, it can be rewarding — but only if you’re actively seeking a difficult and time-consuming DIY challenge. 

If, however, your idea of a DIY project doesn’t expand far beyond assembling some Scandinavian flatpack furniture, then you might want to steer clear of taking on solar. It is a very time-consuming project. From conception to commissioning, a DIY solar installation for a home usually takes between one to four months.

Con: Risk of roof damage or leaks 

This is perhaps the biggest financial risk when it comes to a DIY solar installation.

Unless you have a flat roof, your solar installation will involve drilling a large number of holes into your roof. Drilling into the wrong spot on the roof can cause structural damage, while incorrect sealing and flashing can cause a roof leakage and/or mold issues. 

Another factor to keep in mind is that a DIY solar installation is likely to void the warranty of your roof, so you’ll have to foot the bill for any repairs that may be needed. 

Con: Physical danger 

Heights and high voltage electricity. If you’re doing a DIY solar installation from start to finish, there’s no avoiding these two risks.

A man falls off a roof in cartoonish fashion

Falls are a hazard in DIY solar panel installation. Image source: Twitter

And the physical risks can continue after the installation. If your panels aren’t performing as they should, you may need to get back on the roof to troubleshoot the issue. 

Worst of all, if you haven’t connected the wiring properly, your rooftop system could catch fire!

Con: Inability to claim some incentives 

Many states offer incentives and rebates that dramatically reduce the cost of going solar. 

Some incentives, however, are only available when the installation is completed by a certified solar company.

Con: No support for faults or warranty claims 

You are on your own if there is ever a fault with the equipment. 

Of course, you can still contact the manufacturer directly, but it can be difficult to prove a warranty claim. Furthermore, if you perform an improper installation, you can actually void the warranty. 

The 11 steps for DIY solar panels

Let’s now dive into the 11 steps needed to take your DIY solar panel project from conception to completion. 

1. Decide on your goals 

If you haven’t already, you first need to decide what your goal is for going solar. 

The goal you’re shooting for will determine the best system type for you, how complex the installation will be, and how much the project will cost.

Homeowners usually choose between the following goals.

  • Financial savings
  • Backup power
  • Energy self sufficiency (independence from the electrical grid)

We strongly recommend that you decide on your goal right at the outset. There is an almost infinite number of options and permutations when it comes to DIY solar, so you need to be clear on what decisions you make, and why.

2. Choose the right solar system type 

The next decision is to choose the right solar power system type to match your goal.  

There are three main types of solar installations:

  • Grid-tied solar panel system
  • Hybrid solar panel system (aka grid-tied with battery storage)
  • Off-grid solar system 

All of these system types have many features in common: they all involve solar panels, inverters, mounts, and wiring. There are, however, some crucial differences, and they can impact the project’s cost and complexity. Here’s a brief summary of each. 

Grid-tied solar panel system 

A grid-tied solar panel system is a solar setup that is connected to the grid and uses it as a battery through net metering. Grid-tied solar panel systems are usually smaller than the other types and have the lowest upfront cost. 

Best for: Maximum financial savings

Pros: Lowest cost, simple design and installation

Cons: The system will shut off during a grid outage. Your system will need to pass inspection before it can be connected to the grid. 

This video shows how a grid-tied solar system works for a typical home: https://www.youtube.com/embed/A5Wb61nEoZc?rel=0

Hybrid solar panel system (aka grid-tied with battery storage) 

A hybrid solar panel system is also connected to the grid; the key difference here is the inclusion of a battery storage solution. 

As with a regular grid-tied system, a hybrid solar system can import and export power from the grid as needed. But a hybrid solar system can use the battery system for two additional uses: for backup power during a grid failure, and to take advantage of Time of Use (TOU) arbitrage

However, solar batteries — the most famous example of which is the Tesla Powerwall — are still an expensive option, so adding one to a solar system nearly always lowers the return on investment for the homeowner. In other words, the increased cost of adding a battery typically does not lead to an equivalent increase in savings. 

Best for: Backup power

Pros: Emergency power supply during grid outages

Cons: Requires a battery backup solution, and unfortunately batteries are still expensive to buy. Your system will also need to pass inspection before it can be connected to the grid.

Off-grid system

As the name suggests, an off-grid solar system operates independently of the grid. 

Since there’s no grid to fall back on, the solar system needs to be very large so that it can meet the home’s power needs 24/7, 365 days a year — even during winter and/or long stretches of overcast weather. 

To achieve this, off-grid solar systems require a large number of solar panels as well as a large  battery bank.  

Best for: Energy self sufficiency

Pros: Zero reliance on the electricity grid and no interaction with the utility company, and no inspections. 

Cons: Very expensive, and lots of space required for the large number of solar panels and accompanying battery storage. 

3. Check solar rules and regulations  

There is a wide range of rules governing solar installations. They can vary greatly between states, and even between local jurisdictions. 

You will usually need a building permit and a utility permit before you start your installation. This usually involves an on-site inspection by either a structural engineer or a licensed electrician. You will need to pass another round of inspections before your system can be activated and connected to the grid. 

Some states don’t allow a solar system to be connected to the grid unless the installation was performed by a licensed contractor. If this is the case where you live, you won’t be able to install a DIY grid-tied or hybrid solar system. 

It is important to know these rules beforehand so you can judge if a DIY solar panel installation is possible where you live; and if it is possible, if it’s still a worthwhile option to pursue. 

4. Design a system 

This is one of the most complicated parts of the DIY solar panel process. You want your system to take into account all of the following factors:

  • Your energy usage
  • Climate and the number of sun hours you’ll see each month
  • Solar panel orientation
  • Solar panel angle
  • Natural efficiency drop
  • Conversion losses
  • Shading 
  • Expandability
  • Battery size and charging (for hybrid and off-grid systems)

The PVWatts Calculator from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a well-known tool that takes into account the above points to show you total system output over each month of the year. 

We also recommend you try out our solar panel calculator. It builds on the data provided by PVWatts to recommend a system size for your specific home, and even shows you which section of your roof you should use for maximum exposure to sunlight. 

Calculate the system size you need to offset 100% of your electric usage

GET STARTED

If you’re adding batteries for a hybrid or off-grid system, you’ll need to take care to size your battery correctly. If your battery is too small, you may run out of backup power just when you need it. On the flip side, if your battery is too big, you’ll wind up spending too much, and might quickly diminish battery capacity by failing to charge it sufficiently. 

For more information about batteries, check out this handy guide on battery sizing. 

As part of your system design, you’ll want to create an electrical diagram. This will be useful as a blueprint when it’s time to install your panels; it will also be required when you’re applying for permits.

5. Do the math 

By this point, you should have a clear idea of what kind of system you want, as well as what’s allowed (and what isn’t) under the rules and regulations governing solar in your area. 

Now you’ll want to move on to specifics and work the numbers, i.e. your estimated costs and savings.

Man in formal attire works on desk with laptop and calculator

Make a solar costs and savings projection covering the guaranteed life of your panels (typically 25 years). Image source: Freepik

Based on your system design, you should be able to search online and find the costs for the equipment you require. The simplest way to do this is to look for a complete, all-in-one DIY solar kit that matches your needs. 

Next, you want to work out your utility bill savings. Using the system size you worked out in your design in Step #4, it’s relatively easy to calculate the annual output of your system. Based on that, you can figure out and total up avoided utility costs. When projecting ahead, be sure to account for inflation in utility costs. 

Some homeowners may be constrained by limited roof space; in that case, they should calculate the maximum number of solar panels that can fit on their roof, and then figure out costs and savings from there.

Now, with the cost and savings figure in hand, you can calculate what the return on your DIY solar panel project will be, and if it’s worth going ahead with from a financial perspective. 

6. Stop and reevaluate

Assuming you’ve already completed Steps 1-4, you should have a clear idea about whether a DIY solar panel installation is feasible or not. Specifically, this is what you should know by now:  

  • If a DIY solar panel system is allowed where you live
  • The permitting and approval process
  • The solar panel system size you want, and whether you have the space for it
  • The estimated cost of the installation
  • The electricity bills savings you will receive
  • If the financial equation is right for you
  • All of the risks associated with a DIY solar panel installation (refer to the ‘Cons’ section earlier on this blog) 

If you’re still unclear on any of the points, step back and continue your research. 

If you do have all this information, then I recommend you pause and reevaluate. 

Is solar right for you? And if it is, here are the three options you can choose to make it a reality. 

DIY solar panel installation 

You’ve done your research and are clear on what DIY solar installation entails. You’re confident in your ability to perform all the necessary tasks yourself, and have a plan to avoid or mitigate all the risks. Congratulations, you’re ready to get started and get your hands dirty. 

Outsource part of the installation 

You may decide that you’re better off outsourcing part of the installation. This is often a good idea if there’s a specific section that you don’t feel comfortable with. For instance, many solar DIY-ers decide to hire an external contractor to perform the electrical installation.

Get a professional solar company to perform the entire installation 

While this is the most expensive in terms of cost, it’s the cheapest option when it comes to time, effort and peace of mind. The solar company will design the system for you, source all materials, and deal with all permitting requirements. Furthermore, if there are any issues with panels or workmanship down the line, they will be there to handle them for you. 

I encourage you to check out this option. To do so, simply use our solar panel calculator to request no-obligation quotes from licensed solar installers in your area.

See live solar prices in your area and request obligation-free quotes

GET STARTED

If you’re still not sure which is the best way forward, here is a solar decision matrix to help you out. 

 Financial costsTime costsRoof leakage riskPermitting requirementsEasePersonal safety
DIY solar install++ –
Outsource part of the installation+++++
Professional solar install++++++++++

7. Start permitting process

You’re ready to get your hands dirty and install some solar panels! But wait — remember the rules and regulations you researched back at Step #3? 

If you haven’t already, list out all permit processes required by the state, your utility, and your authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). 

There’s a good chance that you’re going to have to apply for a building and utility permit before you start any work. This will often involve an inspection by either an electrician or a structural engineer, or both. 

It’s important to follow all the steps required to ensure that your installation is code-compliant and legal. 

8. Choose supplier and buy equipment 

Here’s is a brief list of all the equipment you’ll need for you solar setup:

  • Solar panels
  • Solar inverter
  • Mounting and racking equipment
  • Wiring and general electrical supplies
  • Battery system (for hybrid and off-grid system)
  • Charge controller (required for some battery systems) 

Ideally, you’ll find a complete DIY solar panel kit that includes everything you need for your solar installation. That’ll save you time that you would otherwise spend searching for individual components and then figuring out whether each part can work together.  

When you’re comparing kits, we encourage you to check product reviews on SolarReviews to make sure that you’re buying from reputable brands that homeowners are happy with. 

When it comes to picking a supplier, you want to choose one that offers great warranty and after-sales support. I would prioritize both these factors over price — unless you’ve performed a solar installation before, you’re going to have to talk to the vendor many times during the installation, and maybe even after.

9. Install the solar panel system

At this point, you should have successfully applied for all necessary permits and approvals, and accepted delivery of your solar equipment. It’s now time to install the panels!

The actual specifics of the installation will depend on what system type and equipment you’ve decided upon. 

The process I’m describing below is for a grid-tied system that uses microinverters for the DC to AC power conversion. 

Task 1: Install solar panel racking and mounting 

Use a chalk line to measure and mark out exactly where on your roof the racking system will be installed. 

Next, look for solid bits of the roof to drill into for the installation of lag bolts. You should consider using a stud finder with AC current detection to ensure you’re not drilling through a power line. 

Caulk the holes and install flashing to create a waterproof seal before you screw the lag bolts in. Once the lag bolts are all ready, you can install L-feet and then lock the rails on to them.

Task 2: Connect microinverters 

Onto the microinverters. These are little boxes that will modulate the output of each panel. You’ll connect them to the rails using the provided bolts. Each box will have a positive and negative wire coming out of it, which you will connect together to form a series connection for each array. 

Close up of a microinverter connected to a rail atop a shingled roof

Microinverters attached to a rail. Later, each solar panel will be connected to one before it is mounted. Image source: Enphase

Task 3: Connect grounding wire

Connect copper wire of an appropriate gauge across the rails as grounding. This is an important safety precaution and will help dissipate any anomalies caused by a lightning strike or a fault.

Task 4: Install roof junction box 

You’ll need to drill a hole in the roof to install a junction box. If you have more than one solar array, you will run the trunk cable from each into the junction box. This will allow you to channel the power from the solar panels to your house. 

Task 5: Install the solar panels

It’s now time to haul the panels onto the roof. Each module is about 65 inches by 39 inches, which can be an awkward size for one person to handle on their own. Consider getting someone to assist you with this part, especially if your roof is steep. I also strongly recommend that you use a harness while you’re up there. 

It’s now time to attach the solar panels to the mounting rail. Before laying them down flat, first get the wiring in order. Each solar panel will have a negative and positive DC wire attached. You don’t want the wires to touch the roof, so you clip or zip-tie them to the panel. You can then connect the wires into the microinverters you’ve already attached to the railings. 

Next, insert the provided mid-clamps into the railing to hold the solar panel in place from each side. For the solar panels that lie on each end of the rail, use end-clamps to keep them in place and present a more aesthetically pleasing look. 

Task 6: Home run connection

With the solar panels ready, it’s time to connect them to the house. For this you will need to install:

  • A conduit
  • An external junction box
  • An emergency disconnect box

The conduit will carry the wires from the roof junction box down to the external junction box. 

The junction box will in turn connect to an emergency disconnect. This is a safety feature that allows you to quickly shut off your solar panel system, and is a required feature in many jurisdictions.

From the emergency disconnect, the wires are passed through to the home’s main electrical panel. The external junction box and emergency disconnect box should be weatherproof and installed in an area that is easily accessible and allows easy connection to the home’s main electrical panel.

Your solar panel system is now ready, but unfortunately there’s still a couple of more hoops to jump before you can actually switch it on. 

10. Final inspection and interconnection with the grid

Once your installation is complete, you’ll have to schedule an inspection with the local AHJ. The inspector will come out and inspect your system to ensure that it’s compliant with local ordinances, and that the design matches those laid out in your plans. 

The system will also need to pass an electrical inspection to ensure that it is code-compliant. 

Once the inspection is done, you will need to apply for interconnection with the grid. The utility will either install a second meter, or replace your existing one with a bi-directional (or net) meter. The bi-directional meter can record your home’s power exports the grid so that you can receive credits on your power bill.  

11. Switch on your system

Assuming your system has now met all state, local and utility requirements, you can now commission it. 

These days, most inverters offer solar monitoring app that allow you to check your system performance online from wherever you are. Use this to make sure that your solar system is performing as expected. 

It was hard work, but you can now benefit from a solar panel system that produces clean energy, lowers your electricity bill, and improves the value of your home. Congratulations! 

DIY or not, solar power is highly rewarding

If you’ve read through this very lengthy blog post, kudos – you are definitely serious about going solar! You are now on a journey that I’m sure you’ll find highly rewarding. 

Here are some of the best things about having solar panels: 

  • The satisfaction of receiving a much lower utility bill – and thinking of all the things you can do with the money you’ll be saving over the years
  • Monitoring your solar panel production and usage from day to day
  • Pride in producing clean energy and doing your part in combating climate change

If you have a lot of time on your hands and the skills to pull it off, you can achieve all these benefits at the minimum possible cost. 

However, if you’ve read through this guide and feel that a DIY solar installation is just too much work, then fret not: you can still get all the benefits by getting a professional solar company to do the work for you.

Either way, we encourage you to check out our solar calculator. It will recommend a system for you that offers 100% offset of your utility bills, and can show you what the panels will actually look like on your roof. 

Leave a Comment