We have researched the Evolution Of Wind Turbine Blades. Hence, this article on the wind turbine blade manufacturing process. Below, in this article, you will find how do wind turbines work. Read on to discover them.
People have caught the wind to propel their boats for many thousands of years. I’m skipping that part of wind power history and jumping forward to the use of wind for mechanical and electrical purposes. In particular, I’m looking for the most part at the history of wind turbines.
1st century AD: For the first time in known history, a wind-driven wheel is used to power a machine. A Greek engineer, Heron of Alexandria, creates this windwheel.
By 7th to 9th century: Windwheels are used for practical purposes in the Sistan region of Iran, near Afghanistan. The Panemone windmills are used to grind corn, grind flour, and pump water.
By 1000 AD: Windmills are used for pumping seawater to make salt in China and Sicily.
1180s: Vertical windmills are used in Northwestern Europe for grinding flour.
wind turbine blade manufacturing process
Evolution Of Wind Turbine Blades
1887: The first known wind turbine used to produce electricity is built in Scotland. The wind turbine is created by Prof James Blyth of Anderson’s College, Glasgow (now known as Strathclyde University). “Blyth’s 10 m high, cloth-sailed wind turbine was installed in the garden of his holiday cottage at Marykirk in Kincardineshire and was used to charge accumulators developed by the Frenchman Camille Alphonse Faure, to power the lighting in the cottage, thus making it the first house in the world to have its electricity supplied by wind power. Blyth offered the surplus electricity to the people of Marykirk for lighting the main street, however, they turned down the offer as they thought electricity was ‘the work of the devil.’ “
1888: The first known US wind turbine created for electricity production is built by inventor Charles Brush to provide electricity for his mansion in Ohio. (Pictured above.)
1891: A Danish scientist, Poul la Cour, develops an electricity-generating wind turbine and later figures out how to supply a steady stream of power from the wind turbine by use of a regulator, a Kratostate.
1895: Poul la Cour converts his windmill into a prototype electrical power plant. It is then used to provide electricity for lighting for the village of Askov.
By 1900: Approximately 2,500 windmills with a combined peak power capacity of 30 megawatts are being used across Denmark for mechanical purposes, such as grinding grains and pumping water.
1903: Poul la Cour starts the Society of Wind Electricians. He is also the first known person to discover that wind turbines with fewer blades that spin faster are more efficient than turbines with many blades spinning slowly.
1904: The Society of Wind Electricians holds its first course on wind electricity. (Class participants pictured above.)
By 1908: 72 electricity-generating wind power systems are running across Denmark. The windmills range from 5 kW to 25 kW in size.
1927: Joe Jacobs and Marcellus Jacobs open a “Jacobs Wind” factory in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They produce wind turbines for use on farms, since farms often don’t have access to the grid. The wind turbines are generally used to charge batteries and to power lights.
1931: A vertical-axis wind turbine design called the Darrieus wind turbine is patented by Georges Jean Marie Darrieus, a French aeronautical engineer. This type of wind turbine is still used today, but for more niche applications like on boats, not nearly as widely as horizontal-axis wind turbines.
1931: A horizontal-axis wind turbine similar to the ones we use today is built in Yalta. The wind turbine has 100 kW of capacity, a 32-meter-high tower, and a 32% load factor (which is actually similar to what today’s wind turbines get).
1941: The first megawatt-size wind turbine is connected to a local electrical distribution grid. The 1.25-MW Smith-Putnam wind turbine is erected in Castletown, Vermont. It has blades 75 feet in length.
During World War II: Small wind turbines are used on German U-boats to recharge submarine batteries and save fuel.
1957: Jacobs Wind has now produced and sold approximately 30,000 wind turbines, including to customers in Africa and Antarctica.
1957: Johannes Juul, a former student of Poul la Cour, builds a horizontal-axis wind turbine with a diameter of 24 meters and 3 blades very similar in design to wind turbines still used today. The wind turbine has a capacity of 200 kW and it employs a new invention, emergency aerodynamic tip breaks, which is still used in wind turbines today.#rewpage#
1975: A NASA wind turbine program to develop utility-scale wind turbines starts. “This research and development program pioneered many of the multi-megawatt turbine technologies in use today, including: steel tube towers, variable-speed generators, composite blade materials, partial-span pitch control, as well as aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic engineering design capabilities. The large wind turbines developed under this effort set several world records for diameter and power output.”
1975: The first US wind farm is put online, producing enough power for up to 4,149 homes.
1978: The world’s first multi-megawatt wind turbine is produced by Tvind school teachers and students. The 2-megawatt wind turbine “pioneered many technologies used in modern wind turbines and allowed Vestas, Siemens and others to get the parts they needed. Especially important was the novel wing construction using help from German aeronautics specialists.” (This wind turbine is still running today.)
1978: Danish wind turbine manufacturer Vestas produces its first wind turbine.
1978: The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA P.L. 95-617) is enacted in the US. PURPA requires that utilities interconnect renewable energy projects to the grid. It also requires that utilities purchase equal to “avoided cost,” the cost it would cost a utility to build its own power plant.
1980: Wind developer Zond is founded (eventually becomes GE Wind Energy).
1980: Wind turbine manufacturer Danregn Vindkraft is founded, spinning off from a Danish manufacturer of irrigation systems. It later becomes Bonus Energy and then Siemens Wind Power.
1980: The levelized cost of wind power is now $0.38/kWh in the United States.
1980: The world’s first wind farm including 20 wind turbines is put online
1980s: Denmark starts siting offshore wind turbines.
1980s: Enertech begins building 1.8 kW wind turbines that can connect to the grid.
1980s: Commercial wind turbine rotors get up to a diameter of 17 meters and a capacity of 75 kilowatts.
how do wind turbines work
Top 10 Luxury Helicopters in the World
Most people have heard of personal and charter jets, but luxury helicopters are the genuine gems. Not only are these aircraft comparatively less expensive, but helicopters can approach places that bulky jets can’t. Having a private or commercial helicopter is expedient, more environment friendly, and a symbol of status. Celebrities including Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie and Donald Trump own a luxury helicopter, and this slot market has grown considerably in recent years due to demand from the rich.
They are well-appointed with all the newest technology, and interior seating marks that are designed in fine Italian leather upholstery.
Therefore the list of top 10 luxury helicopters is given below:
1. Augusta Westland AW119 Ke Koala:
The Koala is chiefly used by law enforcement, but it can easily provide accommodation to a group of corporate directors traveling on business. It has a VIP services quite adequately, with premium leather upholstery and seating for about 6 passengers and 2 operators. The Koala reaches a top speed of 166 mph (267 km/h) and a range of 618 miles (995 km). Price ranges from $1.8 to $3 million.
2. Eurocopter Hermès EC 135:
Though this brand of luxury helicopters is not suitable for long distant trips, is has a class apart built. The typical EC 135 will cost you a mere $4.2 million, but the one with the interior design from the best in class designer will cost you up to $6 million. The top speed is 178 mph, but the range is just 395 miles.
3. Augusta Westland AW109 Grand Versace VIP:
Augusta Westland teamed up with the Italian fashion house Versace to produce a super luxury interior for this fancier version of the AW109. The top speed is about 177 mph and a range of 599 miles. The mere difference is that all 599 of those miles will be more luxurious for the VIP passengers. Hence, will cost you $6.3 million price tag and the helicopter is fully covered in Versace leather, design and exterior.
4. Eurocopter Mercedes-Benz EC 145:
If you’re a Mercedes fan, now you can fly your preferred brand helicopter too. A regular EC 145 costs about $5.5 million, so the Mercedes version is going to cost anywhere around $7 million. But it’s totally worth it. No other Mercedes can go 153 mph while flying 17,000 feet above the ground. It has all the luxury of the famous German sports.
5. Eurocopter EC 175:
The EC 175 made its wonderful first appearance at the Paris Air Show in 2009. The chief feature of the EC 175 is that it can hold 16 passengers contentedly inside. The top speed reaches 178 mph (286 km/h), with a range of 345 miles (555 km). It costs whooping $7.9 million.
6. Eurocopter EC 155:
This is a luxurious chopper. Its top speed is an impressive 200 mph with a range of 533 miles. It can seat as many as 13 passengers; this spacious EC 155 aircraft will cost you $10 million.
7. Sikorsky S-76C:
The Sikorsky S-76C is more generally known as Black Hawk. The massive interior is large sufficient to fit up to a dozen passengers, but the seating occupies 4 passengers in Black Hawk model. It reaches a top speed of 178 mph (286 km/h) and has a range of 473 miles (761 km). It would cost you a $12.95 million.
8. Augusta Westland AW139:
The AW139 is appropriate for law enforcement, armed patrol and firefighters. It has a capacity to seat 8 passengers. The AW139 can reach an unbelievable top speed of 193 mph (310 km/h), with a range of 573 miles (922 km). It carries a beautiful interior costing you a hefty $14.5 million.
9. Bell 525 Relentless:
Like the Gulfstream 650 jet, the Bell 525 Relentless helicopter isn’t on the market currently. This chopper is going to cost $15 million. They predicted that the seating will be for 16, a top speed of 162 mph, and a range of 460 miles. This bright yellow Relentless with amazing seating will cost you a fortune.
10. Sikorsky S-92 VIP Configuration:
The S-92 can safely accommodate 9 passengers in its extensive interior cabin. The prices vary exponentially if you plan on decking the interiors with gold or crystal. The top speed of the S-92 is around 194 mph (312 km/h), with a range of 594 miles (956 km). The prices range from $17 million to $32 million.
Helicopter charter can be the most stress-free travel familiarity you will ever have. Which includes being able to travel outside of airports to reach vital meetings or even other flights in a different airport. Though rich class can afford these luxury helicopters, they are worth the investment.