Here is a detailed post about Helicopter Rotor Blade Material Properties. Suppose you are looking for how to make helicopter rotor blades. Then reading this article may help. It also includes helicopter blade design calculations.
Helicopter blade sections from the Apache 64H helicopter were considered. These rotor blades have a built-up construction consisting of preformed sheet-metal members adhesively bonded with high-performance structural adhesive. In-service experience with these blades has shown disbonds between the structural elements appearing because of in-flight vibrations. In our experiment, we considered a rear rotor-blade section, as shown in Figure 10.25. The section was instrumented with several E/M impedance PWAS transducers of size 0.5 in×0.5 in acting as disbond sensors. The disbond sensors were adhesively bonded to the surface using standard strain-gauge installation procedures.
how to make helicopter rotor blades
Helicopter Rotor Blade Material Properties
There are no general standards for the testing of the surface protection of rotor blades. The standards for testing helicopter blades are useful guidelines, but helicopter rotor blades are examined after a certain number of hours in the air, whilst wind turbine rotor blades need to be protected in a way that ensures they can operate for years without maintenance.
The standards for both offshore constructions and the paints and varnishes used on them can be used as guidelines when creating a set of test parameters for the surface protection of wind turbine rotor blades.
Various other standards can also be used as guidelines, including the Norsok Standard M-501, ‘Surface preparation and protective coating’, which is a standard developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry, and the European standard ISO 20340 ‘Paints and varnishes – Performance and requirements for protective paint systems for offshore and related structures’.14,15 ISO 4628 ‘Paints and varnishes – Evaluation of degradation of coatings’ and ‘Designation of quantity and size of defects, and of intensity of uniform changes in appearance’16 can be used to create a programme that tests the influence of the different parameters that can attack the surface. Parts 4628–2, 4628–4 and 4628–5 are especially useful for wind turbine rotor blades.17–19
The standards for offshore painted steel structures are more relevant than the standards for helicopter blades when standardizing protection for wind turbine rotor blades, because wind turbines are similar to offshore installations for the petroleum industry. Offshore structures used in the petroleum industry are divided into four zones based on the environment that each structure is exposed to (ISO 20340).14One zone corresponds to the area exposed to atmospheric category C5-M, and the other three zones correspond to category Im2, which are the underwater zone, the tidal zone and the splash zone.14
All four zones are relevant for wind turbine towers, but only the zone corresponding to atmospheric category C5-M is regarded as relevant to rotor blades (see Reference 20 for ISO 12944–2:2000). Both category C5-M and Im2 are categories that describe a harsh environment. The categories are both designed for steel constructions, but most of the parameters can be applied to composites and structures with surface protection. C5-M and Im2 define corrosiveness based on the mass or thickness lost by standard specimens, and they also describe typical atmospheric environments.
This section will now conclude by describing a selection of useful tests that have been proved to be able to highlight the ability of different surfaces to withstand harsh atmospheres. These are modified from tests for paints and varnishes in offshore (marine) atmospheres, taking into consideration that the standard tests have been designed for metals, in particular painted steel.
helicopter blade design calculations
Top 10 Luxury Helicopters in the World
Most people have heard of personal and charter jets, but luxury helicopters are the genuine gems. Not only are these aircraft comparatively less expensive, but helicopters can approach places that bulky jets can’t. Having a private or commercial helicopter is expedient, more environment friendly, and a symbol of status. Celebrities including Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie and Donald Trump own a luxury helicopter, and this slot market has grown considerably in recent years due to demand from the rich.
They are well-appointed with all the newest technology, and interior seating marks that are designed in fine Italian leather upholstery.
Therefore the list of top 10 luxury helicopters is given below:
1. Augusta Westland AW119 Ke Koala:
The Koala is chiefly used by law enforcement, but it can easily provide accommodation to a group of corporate directors traveling on business. It has a VIP services quite adequately, with premium leather upholstery and seating for about 6 passengers and 2 operators. The Koala reaches a top speed of 166 mph (267 km/h) and a range of 618 miles (995 km). Price ranges from $1.8 to $3 million.
2. Eurocopter Hermès EC 135:
Though this brand of luxury helicopters is not suitable for long distant trips, is has a class apart built. The typical EC 135 will cost you a mere $4.2 million, but the one with the interior design from the best in class designer will cost you up to $6 million. The top speed is 178 mph, but the range is just 395 miles.
3. Augusta Westland AW109 Grand Versace VIP:
Augusta Westland teamed up with the Italian fashion house Versace to produce a super luxury interior for this fancier version of the AW109. The top speed is about 177 mph and a range of 599 miles. The mere difference is that all 599 of those miles will be more luxurious for the VIP passengers. Hence, will cost you $6.3 million price tag and the helicopter is fully covered in Versace leather, design and exterior.
4. Eurocopter Mercedes-Benz EC 145:
If you’re a Mercedes fan, now you can fly your preferred brand helicopter too. A regular EC 145 costs about $5.5 million, so the Mercedes version is going to cost anywhere around $7 million. But it’s totally worth it. No other Mercedes can go 153 mph while flying 17,000 feet above the ground. It has all the luxury of the famous German sports.
5. Eurocopter EC 175:
The EC 175 made its wonderful first appearance at the Paris Air Show in 2009. The chief feature of the EC 175 is that it can hold 16 passengers contentedly inside. The top speed reaches 178 mph (286 km/h), with a range of 345 miles (555 km). It costs whooping $7.9 million.
6. Eurocopter EC 155:
This is a luxurious chopper. Its top speed is an impressive 200 mph with a range of 533 miles. It can seat as many as 13 passengers; this spacious EC 155 aircraft will cost you $10 million.
7. Sikorsky S-76C:
The Sikorsky S-76C is more generally known as Black Hawk. The massive interior is large sufficient to fit up to a dozen passengers, but the seating occupies 4 passengers in Black Hawk model. It reaches a top speed of 178 mph (286 km/h) and has a range of 473 miles (761 km). It would cost you a $12.95 million.
8. Augusta Westland AW139:
The AW139 is appropriate for law enforcement, armed patrol and firefighters. It has a capacity to seat 8 passengers. The AW139 can reach an unbelievable top speed of 193 mph (310 km/h), with a range of 573 miles (922 km). It carries a beautiful interior costing you a hefty $14.5 million.
9. Bell 525 Relentless:
Like the Gulfstream 650 jet, the Bell 525 Relentless helicopter isn’t on the market currently. This chopper is going to cost $15 million. They predicted that the seating will be for 16, a top speed of 162 mph, and a range of 460 miles. This bright yellow Relentless with amazing seating will cost you a fortune.
10. Sikorsky S-92 VIP Configuration:
The S-92 can safely accommodate 9 passengers in its extensive interior cabin. The prices vary exponentially if you plan on decking the interiors with gold or crystal. The top speed of the S-92 is around 194 mph (312 km/h), with a range of 594 miles (956 km). The prices range from $17 million to $32 million.
Helicopter charter can be the most stress-free travel familiarity you will ever have. Which includes being able to travel outside of airports to reach vital meetings or even other flights in a different airport. Though rich class can afford these luxury helicopters, they are worth the investment.