If you are looking for the best Helicopter Tail Rotor Design, then look no further than this article. It includes how to make helicopter rotor blades. Perhaps you are interested in helicopter blade length and width, then reading this article may help you.
A variant of the tandem is the coaxial rotor helicopter which has the same principle of operation, but the two main rotors are mounted one above the other on coaxial rotor shafts. This constructive solution was developed by Nicolai Ilich Kamov. Another helicopter type is the synchropter, which use intermeshing blades ( Figure 3b ). This type of helicopter was proposed by Charles Kaman.
how to make helicopter rotor blades
Helicopter Tail Rotor Design
There are four main types of helicopter Anti-Torque system:
- Bladed Tail Rotor
- Fenestron Tail Rotor
- No System
1. The Multi-Bladed System
This is the most common type of anti-torque system that you will see on a helicopter. It comprises of two or more rotor blades that change pitch to adjust the amount of thrust they produce as a unit.
The pilot controls the pitch of the tail rotor by pushing on the foot pedals. Push on the left pedal it adjusts the pitch and turns the nose of the aircraft to the left.
The pitch either increases and creates more thrust to turn the helicopter against the main rotor direction or the pitch decreases and allows the torque to pull the nose of the helicopter in the same direction of the main rotor blades direction.
Various helicopter manufacturers have the main rotor going in a clockwise rotation while others rotate it in an anti-clockwise direction. Pilots call the pedal that moves the nose against the torque the ‘Power Pedal’ as it requires power from the engine to overcome the torque.
- In a Bell, MD, Robinson or Leonardo helicopter the Power Pedal is the Left Pedal
- In a Eurocopter/Airbus helicopter, the Power Pedal is the Right Pedal
Some helicopters may have more than two tail rotor blades and this is because they need to produce more thrust to counteract the torque. The more powerful a helicopter engine/s are, the more thrust needs to be produced by the tail rotor.
One of the easiest ways to get more thrust is to add more tail rotor blades.
If the manufacturer of a powerful or heavy helicopter just used two blades, the blades would have to be considerably larger to produce the same amount of thrust. The larger blades could become an issue when lifting and landing the machine, especially out in the field.
As a helicopter lifts off it generally lifts off with the tail hanging lower than the fuselage because of weight & balance. A large tail rotor could easily come into contact with brush or vegetation when used out in the field, therefore it is better to use 3/4/5 tail rotor blades of a smaller length.
2. The Fenestron System
The Fenestron is a Trademarked Anti-Torque system used on many Eurocopter, now Airbus Helicopters.
This anti-torque system works by placing a multi-bladed fan within a duct in the tail of the helicopter. The duct is integrated into the tail boom and is usually made of a fiberglass skin. The fan consists of between 8-18 blades, depending on the aircraft model, and is of a much smaller diameter than a conventional tail rotor system.
To produce the required amount of thrust Eurocopter chose to have many small blades and rotate them faster as speed and surface area are two variables in the Lift formula.
Controlling the thrust of the Fenestron is done the same way as the conventional tail rotor system. The pilot changes the pitch of all the Fenestron blades together using the foot pedals in the cockpit. A mechanical and hydraulic linkage connects the two.
The Fenestron design allows for several improvements over a regular tail rotor:
- Smaller tip vortices on the ends of the fan blades help maximize thrust produced
- Huge reduction in noise compared to a traditional tail rotor
- Shrouded design allows a safer working area for crews with rotors turning
- Shrouded design helps minimize tail rotor strikes when landing at unprepared helipads
3. The NOTAR System
NOTAR stands for No Tail Rotor and it is exactly that. Developed by Hughes Helicopters in the 1970’s, the patent is now owned by MD Helicopters after their acquisition of Hughes Helicopters in the mid 1980’s.
The NOTAR system comprises of an engine-driven, variable pitch fan that is mounted perpendicular inside the tail boom to produce large volumes of low-pressure air that exit through horizontal slots along the right-hand side of the tail boom and via a rotatable ‘Jet Thruster’ at the end of the tail boom.
As power is increased when the collective is raised, the pitch on the fan blades is increased to produce more airflow to counteract the increased torque.
- Air Intake for Fan
- Variable Pitch Fan
- Tail boom with Horizontal Coanda Slots
- Vertical Stabilizers
- Direct Jet Thruster
- Main Rotor Downwash Path
- Cross-Section of Tail boom
- Anti-Torque Thrust
The low-pressure air released down the length of the tail boom creates a Coanda Effect around the tail boom which acts as a venturi to pull the downwash from the main rotor around the tail boom and exit off to the left.
This creates an area of low-pressure on the right-hand side of the tail boom, pulling the entire tail boom to the right, counteracting the torque from the main rotor.
Directional control is accomplished when the pilot pushes on the foot pedals. These are linked to a rotating drum on the end of the tail boom and movable vertical stabilizers.
In the hover, the Jet Thruster is enough to increase thrust or decrease thrust produced by the tail boom to allow the aircraft to rotate as required by the pilot. When in forward flight the moveable vertical stabilizers act like a rudder to help move the tail.
The feel of this type of system feels ‘Spongy’ to the pilot rather than sharp like the typical tail rotor.
Just like the Fenestron, the NOTAR system gives similar improvements over a standard tail rotor:
- Quietest Anti-Torque system on any helicopter
- No external rotating parts allow for improved working safety around aircraft.
- No rotating parts to hit when landing at unprepared landing sites.
4. No Tail Rotor System
When a helicopter has two sets of main rotors the designers make each set rotate in opposite directions. By doing this they each cancel out the torque imparted by the other rotor disk.
Because of this, no additional anti-torque system is needed on a tail boom. Directional control is accomplished by changing the pitch on each rotor disk similar to the way the cyclic changes the disk pitch on a single main rotor helicopter.
helicopter blade length and width
Top 10 Luxury Helicopters in the World
Most people have heard of personal and charter jets, but luxury helicopters are the genuine gems. Not only are these aircraft comparatively less expensive, but helicopters can approach places that bulky jets can’t. Having a private or commercial helicopter is expedient, more environment friendly, and a symbol of status. Celebrities including Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie and Donald Trump own a luxury helicopter, and this slot market has grown considerably in recent years due to demand from the rich.
They are well-appointed with all the newest technology, and interior seating marks that are designed in fine Italian leather upholstery.
Therefore the list of top 10 luxury helicopters is given below:
1. Augusta Westland AW119 Ke Koala:
The Koala is chiefly used by law enforcement, but it can easily provide accommodation to a group of corporate directors traveling on business. It has a VIP services quite adequately, with premium leather upholstery and seating for about 6 passengers and 2 operators. The Koala reaches a top speed of 166 mph (267 km/h) and a range of 618 miles (995 km). Price ranges from $1.8 to $3 million.
2. Eurocopter Hermès EC 135:
Though this brand of luxury helicopters is not suitable for long distant trips, is has a class apart built. The typical EC 135 will cost you a mere $4.2 million, but the one with the interior design from the best in class designer will cost you up to $6 million. The top speed is 178 mph, but the range is just 395 miles.
3. Augusta Westland AW109 Grand Versace VIP:
Augusta Westland teamed up with the Italian fashion house Versace to produce a super luxury interior for this fancier version of the AW109. The top speed is about 177 mph and a range of 599 miles. The mere difference is that all 599 of those miles will be more luxurious for the VIP passengers. Hence, will cost you $6.3 million price tag and the helicopter is fully covered in Versace leather, design and exterior.
4. Eurocopter Mercedes-Benz EC 145:
If you’re a Mercedes fan, now you can fly your preferred brand helicopter too. A regular EC 145 costs about $5.5 million, so the Mercedes version is going to cost anywhere around $7 million. But it’s totally worth it. No other Mercedes can go 153 mph while flying 17,000 feet above the ground. It has all the luxury of the famous German sports.
5. Eurocopter EC 175:
The EC 175 made its wonderful first appearance at the Paris Air Show in 2009. The chief feature of the EC 175 is that it can hold 16 passengers contentedly inside. The top speed reaches 178 mph (286 km/h), with a range of 345 miles (555 km). It costs whooping $7.9 million.
6. Eurocopter EC 155:
This is a luxurious chopper. Its top speed is an impressive 200 mph with a range of 533 miles. It can seat as many as 13 passengers; this spacious EC 155 aircraft will cost you $10 million.
7. Sikorsky S-76C:
The Sikorsky S-76C is more generally known as Black Hawk. The massive interior is large sufficient to fit up to a dozen passengers, but the seating occupies 4 passengers in Black Hawk model. It reaches a top speed of 178 mph (286 km/h) and has a range of 473 miles (761 km). It would cost you a $12.95 million.
8. Augusta Westland AW139:
The AW139 is appropriate for law enforcement, armed patrol and firefighters. It has a capacity to seat 8 passengers. The AW139 can reach an unbelievable top speed of 193 mph (310 km/h), with a range of 573 miles (922 km). It carries a beautiful interior costing you a hefty $14.5 million.
9. Bell 525 Relentless:
Like the Gulfstream 650 jet, the Bell 525 Relentless helicopter isn’t on the market currently. This chopper is going to cost $15 million. They predicted that the seating will be for 16, a top speed of 162 mph, and a range of 460 miles. This bright yellow Relentless with amazing seating will cost you a fortune.
10. Sikorsky S-92 VIP Configuration:
The S-92 can safely accommodate 9 passengers in its extensive interior cabin. The prices vary exponentially if you plan on decking the interiors with gold or crystal. The top speed of the S-92 is around 194 mph (312 km/h), with a range of 594 miles (956 km). The prices range from $17 million to $32 million.
Helicopter charter can be the most stress-free travel familiarity you will ever have. Which includes being able to travel outside of airports to reach vital meetings or even other flights in a different airport. Though rich class can afford these luxury helicopters, they are worth the investment.