We have researched How To Make Gyrocopter Rotor Blades. This is why we are sharing this post on gyrocopter rotor blades manufacturers. Suppose you want to know how to make helicopter rotor blades, then reading this post will help.
A gyroplane is a type of rotorcraft using an unpowered rotor operating by autorotation to develop lift. An engine-powered propeller to provide thrust which is necessary to balance the gyroplane drag force (Stalewski, 2016). Generally, a two-bladed teetering rotor is used in modern gyroplanes with simple design. Therefore, they are lighter, more reliable and require less maintenance than helicopters (Trchalík, 2009).
In contrast to helicopters, the torque of gyrocopter rotor does not come from an engine but from aerodynamic forces generated by airflow passing through the rotor disc (Trchalík, 2009; Simhachalam et al., 2015; Stalewski, 2016). The rotor blade of gyrocopter is to withstand centrifugal force exerted in outwards, to distribute air load and self-weight of the blade.
gyrocopter rotor blades manufacturers
How To Make Gyrocopter Rotor Blades
Though the gyrocopter rotor blades appear like helicopter blades, they have a significant difference in terms of blade profile and its design. Since rotor blades in gyrocopter have an autorotation, it needs not only enough area to produce lifts but also to store enough energy for rotation. Gyroplane rotor blades are flexible, and quite stiff in torsion (Trchalík, 2009).
Gyrocopter rotor blades can be made of bamboo, fabrics, wood, metals or composites. Use of composites has resulted in remarkable achievements in many fields including aviation, marine and automobile engineering, in terms of improved fatigue and corrosion resistances, high specific strength, specific modulus and reduction in energy requirements owing to reduction in weight (Moorthy et al., 2013). A composite material is engineered to provide combined characteristics are very challenging. It combines high strength with light weight and demonstrate a wider range of characteristics than any other materials to meet the diverse requirements of a gyrocopter rotor blade.
Epoxy/Carbon composites have an exceptional mechanical properties and it is widely used in aerospace, automotive, and other industries. These strong, stiff and lightweight materials are an ideal choice for applications Bereitgestellt von Bahir Dar University Libraries | Heruntergeladen 11.10.19 13:56 UTC where lightweight and superior performances are important (Leihong, 2008; Mallick, 2008; Batra, 2012; Mohammadreza and Mohseni, 2014; Rohmani, 2014). Composite gyrocopter rotors have sandwich structure composed of ribs used to handle transverse loads and spars to withstand longitudinal loads. The strength of composite structures depends on the nature of fibers,the orientation of fibers, the number of layers, and the manufacturing process (Rajappan and Pugazhenthi, 2013). \
Traditional solution methods for optimizing complex real-life engineering problems is expensive and often results in sub-optimal solutions. The purpose of structural optimization is to minimize the mass of the overall structure by considering all the components which makes the entire product (Ramu et al., 2010). Optimization methods are very effective tools which are improves the performance of contemporarily designed and constructed aircraft. A fast development in computational methods and computer hardware is lead to expand the range of applications (Stalewski, 2016). Analysis of composite materials is to arrive at an optimized outcome is requires complex modeling, analysis and iterations, whereas finite element software reduces this problem to a large extent. Because of computational time and facility, the designers preferred to a simplified approach so as to arrive at solution in short time.
But extensive simplifying of the real problem will lead to under estimate or overestimate the results. Hence the quality and performance the final product will be adversely affected. This research is aimed to review the previous works related to modeling and analyzing the gyrocopter rotor blade, and propose different models to show the significance the models in terms induced stress and deformation. 2. Literature Review Trchalik (2009) investigated aeroelastic behavior of gyroplane rotors and identifies possible hazardous rotor operation modes. In order to obtain the input parameters for structural model of the blade, a series of experimental measurements were taken to determine the physical properties of a typical gyroplane blade. A series of parametric studies were performed to examine the effect of variation of selected design parameters of rotor blade and stability of a rotor during autorotation. The results show the parameters that affect span-wise distribution of blade and angle of attack have a strongest influence on the performance of rotors in autorotation.
Rajappan and Pugazhenthi (2013) used finite element analysis for aircraft wings made of composite material. They developed a physical model for subsonic aircraft wings made by laminated composite structure of Epoxy/Carbon fiber without any ribs and spar, to show different results of wing loading. They were also investigating the comparison between the loads applied individually and combined loads and obtained the deflection and stress.
Alice et al (2014) performed linear static analysis of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) aircraft wings using ANSYS software. It is found that the maximum stress intensity of magnitude 2240 MPa occurring at the portion of rear spar which is more than the permissible stress in CFRP (1800 MPa) and the maximum deflection in refined model is at the tip of wing.
Ahmedand Azhar (2011) did static analysis to find the best location of boxes inside the woven glass fibers composite wing-box structure. These results were used as a base for composite wing-box to find the numbers of layers and location of the box beam and its dimensions. With respect to stress to weight ratio, composite wing-box having two boxes is better than single or triple boxes. It is achieved 40 percent mass reduction in composite wing-box instead of Aluminum wing.
Stalewski (2016, 2017) proposed two alternative main rotors aerofoil for light gyroplanes. The first designed rotor were made of Aluminum alloy show that there is an increase in maximum speed of 10 percent and reduction in drag force is 7.5 percent, compared to NACA 9H12M. The second designed rotors were made of composite material with variable-chord-blade rotor. Compared with reference rotor the second designed rotors had 13.8 percent reduction in drag force. The structural modeling and aeroelastic optimization of auto-rotating rotors is relatively unexplored and only few publications on the topic are available in open literature. No research studies focused on considering the structural design and optimization of gyrocopter rotor main blade considering spar and ribs elements. Hence this research work have been carried out in order to assess the effect of all the major blade forming structural elements during rotor design and optimized by selecting NACA 8H12 profile, because, it has the recommended aeroelastic for gyroplane. Till now researchers did modeling gyrocopter main rotor blade without considering all major blade forming elements. This study is an attempt to consider different models of rotor blade and show the significance of modeling via the result obtained on stress and deformation.
how to make helicopter rotor blades
Top 10 Luxury Helicopters in the World
Most people have heard of personal and charter jets, but luxury helicopters are the genuine gems. Not only are these aircraft comparatively less expensive, but helicopters can approach places that bulky jets can’t. Having a private or commercial helicopter is expedient, more environment friendly, and a symbol of status. Celebrities including Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie and Donald Trump own a luxury helicopter, and this slot market has grown considerably in recent years due to demand from the rich.
They are well-appointed with all the newest technology, and interior seating marks that are designed in fine Italian leather upholstery.
Therefore the list of top 10 luxury helicopters is given below:
1. Augusta Westland AW119 Ke Koala:
The Koala is chiefly used by law enforcement, but it can easily provide accommodation to a group of corporate directors traveling on business. It has a VIP services quite adequately, with premium leather upholstery and seating for about 6 passengers and 2 operators. The Koala reaches a top speed of 166 mph (267 km/h) and a range of 618 miles (995 km). Price ranges from $1.8 to $3 million.
2. Eurocopter Hermès EC 135:
Though this brand of luxury helicopters is not suitable for long distant trips, is has a class apart built. The typical EC 135 will cost you a mere $4.2 million, but the one with the interior design from the best in class designer will cost you up to $6 million. The top speed is 178 mph, but the range is just 395 miles.
3. Augusta Westland AW109 Grand Versace VIP:
Augusta Westland teamed up with the Italian fashion house Versace to produce a super luxury interior for this fancier version of the AW109. The top speed is about 177 mph and a range of 599 miles. The mere difference is that all 599 of those miles will be more luxurious for the VIP passengers. Hence, will cost you $6.3 million price tag and the helicopter is fully covered in Versace leather, design and exterior.
4. Eurocopter Mercedes-Benz EC 145:
If you’re a Mercedes fan, now you can fly your preferred brand helicopter too. A regular EC 145 costs about $5.5 million, so the Mercedes version is going to cost anywhere around $7 million. But it’s totally worth it. No other Mercedes can go 153 mph while flying 17,000 feet above the ground. It has all the luxury of the famous German sports.
5. Eurocopter EC 175:
The EC 175 made its wonderful first appearance at the Paris Air Show in 2009. The chief feature of the EC 175 is that it can hold 16 passengers contentedly inside. The top speed reaches 178 mph (286 km/h), with a range of 345 miles (555 km). It costs whooping $7.9 million.
6. Eurocopter EC 155:
This is a luxurious chopper. Its top speed is an impressive 200 mph with a range of 533 miles. It can seat as many as 13 passengers; this spacious EC 155 aircraft will cost you $10 million.
7. Sikorsky S-76C:
The Sikorsky S-76C is more generally known as Black Hawk. The massive interior is large sufficient to fit up to a dozen passengers, but the seating occupies 4 passengers in Black Hawk model. It reaches a top speed of 178 mph (286 km/h) and has a range of 473 miles (761 km). It would cost you a $12.95 million.
8. Augusta Westland AW139:
The AW139 is appropriate for law enforcement, armed patrol and firefighters. It has a capacity to seat 8 passengers. The AW139 can reach an unbelievable top speed of 193 mph (310 km/h), with a range of 573 miles (922 km). It carries a beautiful interior costing you a hefty $14.5 million.
9. Bell 525 Relentless:
Like the Gulfstream 650 jet, the Bell 525 Relentless helicopter isn’t on the market currently. This chopper is going to cost $15 million. They predicted that the seating will be for 16, a top speed of 162 mph, and a range of 460 miles. This bright yellow Relentless with amazing seating will cost you a fortune.
10. Sikorsky S-92 VIP Configuration:
The S-92 can safely accommodate 9 passengers in its extensive interior cabin. The prices vary exponentially if you plan on decking the interiors with gold or crystal. The top speed of the S-92 is around 194 mph (312 km/h), with a range of 594 miles (956 km). The prices range from $17 million to $32 million.
Helicopter charter can be the most stress-free travel familiarity you will ever have. Which includes being able to travel outside of airports to reach vital meetings or even other flights in a different airport. Though rich class can afford these luxury helicopters, they are worth the investment.