problems associated with cotton production

We have researched the top Problems Associated With Cotton Production. This is why we are sharing this post on risks of cotton farming. Suppose you want to learn problems faced by cotton farmers, then reading this post will help.

Cotton is one of the most important commercial cash crops in India and plays a dominant role in
the industrial and agricultural economy of the country. India is one of the major producers of
cotton in the world with the largest acreage, almost one-fourth of the world’s area. The
production share is, however, only 13.5% ranking third after China and USA. India is an
agrarian economy with 70% of its population living in villages with agriculture as the main
source of livelihood. Agriculture accounts for 22% of the GDP and provides direct investment
employment to 58% of the country’s population.

problems faced by cotton farmers

Problems Associated With Cotton Production

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is currently grown in 100 countries and fulfills one‐third of the global demand for natural fiber. Irrespective of production regions, cotton production across the world is constrained by the high incidence of pests and diseases, weed pressure and evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds, salinity and soil degradation, and climate aberrations such as drought, floods, and heat waves. Crop production potentials and constraints can vary with countries. Introduction of genetically modified (GM) cotton and its adoption by major producing countries have changed the global trends in cotton production.

Although adoption of GM cotton has ensured a reduction in the usage of insecticides and improved in broad‐spectrum weed control due to the flexibility in herbicide‐based weed management, sustainability of GM cotton could be challenged by the evolution of resistance in insects and weed biotypes. Enhanced adoption of commercially available GM cotton may narrow down the existing genetic diversity of cotton varieties. To ensure sustainability, there should be crop improvement programs by diversifying the genetic base of cotton varieties to handle any biotic and abiotic stresses and a future change in climate. Current management practices of cotton include frequent tillage, which limit a complete adoption of conservation agriculture systems and overhead systems of irrigation.

The use of cover crops and narrow row spacing may minimize tillage with the additional benefits of reduced weed pressure, improved soil health and a reduction in soil compaction and degradation. Modeling studies could help to forecast and minimize different production constraints; however, modeling approaches should bring a holistic picture considering different aspects of crop production rather than isolated scenarios. More avenues also exist for the efficient utilization of by‐products. In a nutshell, science and technology should work hand in hand to minimize the uncertainties and explore more avenues for a profitable, environment‐friendly and sustainable cotton production system.


Cotton crop is one of the principal crops in India and enjoys pride of place and unique position
in our country. It is largely cultivated in rain fed conditions and 74% of the area in our country
is dependent on rainfall, while the remaining areas have access to supplementary irrigation.
Against this background, this study is focused on factors influencing the cotton cultivation and
problems in cotton cultivation in Gobichettipalayam Taluk.

risks of cotton farming


INTRODUCTION
Agricultural sector in India is reeling under the pressure of natural calamities on the one hand
and starving for credit and modernization on the other. The agricultural sector registered a rate
of growth at 9.07% in 2013-14 as against 5.2% in 2012-13. The tenth five year plan had targeted
growth of agricultural GDP at 4% per annum to make up for the deceleration in the later half of
the 1990’s.
Cotton is largely grown in states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana and Tamil nadu. Indian cotton production this season is
estimated at 280 lakh bakes of 170 kg and for the next season it has been projected at a minimum
of 300 lakh bales. The area under cotton cultivation has also shown significant increase with
about 90 lakh hectares. It is projected to touch 95 lakh hectares. This increase in area is because
of the fact that more and more farmers are switching over to cotton from other crops like
sugarcane, pulses. It is significant to note that the contribution of cotton to the total production
in the country, this season is estimated at about 40 percent and for the coming season it has been
projected at 55 percent. It is not surprising area under the traditional varieties and hybrids are
now making way to cotton developed by private sector seed companies particularly in
Coimbatore, Salem and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu considered as the bastion of cotton
production.
The Indian cotton farmers never had it so good with a record crop of 300 lakh bales (each of 170
kg). This year India ranks second in the world cotton production having overtaken us and
standing next to China.
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Modern cotton production technology relies heavily on the use of fertilizers and on chemicals
to control insect pests, diseases and weeds resulting in large scale environmental pollution
posing hazards to human and animal life besides poor profitability in cotton farming. This has
basically prompted the demand for organically cultivated eco-friendly or green cotton.1
Cotton is the traditional and important commercial cash crop has been in cultivation in India for
more than five thousand years. Though synthetic man made fibre has made inroads, cotton
deserves the prime position not only in India but also in the world. The northern hemisphere
accounts for more than 90% of the total world production.
Indian agriculture is fully depends upon on monsoon. Frequent monsoon failure leaves the
farmers high and dry, caught in debt-traps and there are several incidents of suicide in many
parts of the country.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Cultivation of agricultural goods is more complicated than the production of non-agricultural
goods. Cultivation of cotton poses more problems when compared to other agricultural
commodities. The cultivation of cotton is generally depending on fertility of soil, climatic
situations, high yielding varieties of seeds and rainfall. The farmers are facing many problems in
cultivation of cotton. The cotton growers are affected by the problems in cultivation of cotton
due to non-availability of labour, high wage rate, high transportation cost, storage cost, poor
quality of fertilizers, non-availability of fertile seeds, loss due to pest and inadequate technical
know-how. This study is focused to find out answer to the following questions:

  1. What are the factors influencing the cultivation of cotton?
  2. What are the problems faced by the farmers in the cultivation of cotton?
    REVIEW OF LITERATURE
    Review of literature is essential for every research study to carry on investigation successfully.
    Some of the important studies on the related topics have been reviewed here under:
    2Ramasundaram P., Shende N.V. and Gajbhiye H.L. conducted a study on “Factors influencing
    cotton diversion from monopoly procurement”. They suggested that the monopoly cotton
    procurement scheme of cotton is in operation in Maharastra since 1972. The cotton producers
    officially have only one option of selling their produce to the state. But, these three decades of
    experience has shown that vast interstate movement of cotton is taking place clandestinely.
    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The present study is undertaken with the following specific objectives.
  3. To study the factors influencing cultivation of cotton.
  4. To identify the problems faced by the cotton growers in cultivation of cotton.
    Volume 01, No.3, Mar 2015
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    METHODOLOGY
    This study is an empirical research based on the survey method. The study is based on primary
    data. The required primary data have been gathered from the respondents with the help of a well
    structured and pre-tested by way of interview schedule.
    SAMPLING DESIGN
    For the purpose of the study a multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was adopted.
    Selection of Block
    The present study is confined to Erode District in Gobichettipalayam taluk. Gobichettipalayam
    taluk has three blocks namely Gobi, Nambiyur and Thookanaikanpalayam. Out of these three
    blocks Gobichettipalayam block was purposively selected.
    Selection of Growers
    To constitute a sample size of 100 sample farmers were selected by adopting purposive sampling
    method. The farmers were classified into three different groups namely Small (upto 2 acres),
    Middle (2 to 5 acres) and Large (above 5 acres).
    FRAMEWORK OF ANALYSIS
    Based on the data collected from the farmers, a master table was prepared and the data was
    analyzed with the help of Garrett’s ranking technique.
    FACTORS INFLUENCING CULTIVATION OF COTTON
    The success of farming is judged by the amount of profit gained from it. In the area of study,
    sample farmers were interviewed to disclose the factors which motivate them to cultivate cotton.
    Most of the peoples depend upon agriculture. On the way nature of landholding in each farmer
    can cultivate cotton. There are plenty of factors are considered for influencing cultivation of
    cotton products. Size of land is foremost important factor to determine the cultivation of cotton
    and other cropping activities. Especially in cotton cultivation process used for landholdings.
    The farmers are small, medium, large occupation of land consumption for cotton cultivators.
    The sample farmers were asked to assess each factor on its own significance. Each farmer was
    instructed to indicate the importance of the motivating factor by giving rank I to the most
    important factor, rank II to the second important factor and so on. In the present study confined
    to Garrett’s ranking technique methods are used to rank the factors.
    GARRET’S RANKING TECHNIQUE
    Garret’s ranking technique has also been applied to rank the factors with the following formula:
    (Rij – 0.5)
    Percent Position = 100
    Nj
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    Where,
    Rij = Rank given for the ith factor by the jth respondents
    Nj = Number of factors ranked by jth respondents
    By referring to the Garret’s ranking table the percent position estimated has been converted into
    scores. Then for each factor, the scores of each individual have been added and then mean value
    has been considered to be the most important factor.
    Table 1 (See Appendix – 1) reveals that the Garret’s ranking analysis to find out the factors
    influencing the cultivation of cotton.
    Table 1 indicates that the availability of labour is the most important factor which is influencing
    the farmers for cultivate the cotton with the highest mean score of 56.58 percent, followed by
    availability of water with the mean score of 56.44 percent, suitability of soil, with the mean score
    of 52.81, less risk with the mean score of 51.65, short term with the mean score of 50.06, more
    return with the mean score of 48.72, need cropping interval with the mean score of 48.18, small
    landholding with the mean score of 47.77, loan facility with the mean score of 42.25, natural
    calamities with the mean score of 42.16.
    The analysis made by applying the Garrett’s ranking technique reveals that the cultivation of
    cotton in the study area is being influenced by availability of labour followed by other factors.
    PROBLEMS IN CULTIVATION OF COTTON
    The farmers are facing many problems in cultivation of cotton. To identify the relative
    importance of the problems in cultivation of cotton, it has been decided to use the Garrett’s
    Ranking Technique, along with the simple ranking technique. The identified problems relating
    to cultivation of cotton are lack of financial facility, labour shortage, high wage rate, inadequate
    water supply, severity of diseases, lack of technology, high cost of inputs, climate condition, low
    quality of fertilizers and pesticides and poor seeds. The sample farmers are called to assign the
    ranks to identify the most important problems for the cultivation of cotton. The sample farmers
    were asked to rank the problems in order of priority. Table 2 (See Appendix – 2) reveals that the
    Garret’s ranking analysis to find out the Problems faced by the cultivation of cotton farmers.
    Table 2 indicates that the Inadequate water supply is a big problem to all the 100 sample
    respondents with highest mean score of 52.73, followed by low quality of fertilizers and
    pesticides with the mean score of 52.33, labour shortage with the mean score of 51.83, high cost
    of inputs with the mean score of 51.07, high wage rate with the mean score of 50.98, climate
    condition with the mean score of 49.18, lack of financial facility with the mean score of 48.30,
    severity of diseases with the mean score of 47.62, lack of technology with the mean score of
    43.96, poor seeds with the mean score of 42.60.

What Is Textile Recycling?

Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. It is the basis for the textile recycling industry. In the United States, this group is represented by SMART, the Association of Wiping Materials, Used Clothing and Fiber Industries. The necessary steps in the textile recycling process involve the donation, collection, sorting and processing of textiles, and then subsequent transportation to end users of used garments, rags or other recovered materials.& https://710178e6f37e473cca0c51d07c5df8a5.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlnbsp;https://710178e6f37e473cca0c51d07c5df8a5.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. The textile industry has evolved into a nearly $1 trillion industry globally, comprising clothing, as well as furniture and mattress material, linens, draperies, cleaning materials, leisure equipment, and many other items.1 

The Urgency to Recycle Textiles

The importance of recycling textiles is increasingly being recognized. An estimated 100 billion garments are produced annually, worldwide.2 According to U.S. EPA, around 17 million tons of textile municipal solid waste (MSW) was generated in 2018, about 5.8% of total MSW generation. The recycling rate for textiles derived from clothing and footwear was 13.0%, while the recovery for sheets and pillowcases was 15.8% for the same year.3 As such, textile recycling is a significant challenge to be addressed as we strive to move closer to a zero landfill society.

Once in landfills, natural fibers can take a few weeks to a few years to decompose.4 They may release methane and CO2 gas into the atmosphere. Additionally, synthetic textiles are designed not to decompose. In the landfill, they may release toxic substances into groundwater and surrounding soil.5

Textile recycling offers the following environmental benefits:

  • Decreases landfill space requirements, bearing in mind that synthetic fiber products do not decompose and that natural fibers may release greenhouse gasses
  • Avoided use of virgin fibers
  • Reduced consumption of energy and water
  • Pollution avoidance
  • Lessened demand for dyes.

Sources of Textiles for Recycling

Textiles for recycling are generated from two primary sources. These sources include:
1. Post-consumer, including garments, vehicle upholstery, household items and others.
2. Pre-consumer, including scrap created as a by-product from yarn and fabric manufacture, as well as the post-industrial scrap textiles from other industries.

The donation of old garments is supported by non-profit as well as many corporate programs, including those of Nike and Patagonia.

Wearable and Reused Textiles

In the European Union, about 50% of collected textiles are recycled and about 50% are reused. Approximately 35% of donated clothes are turned into industrial rags. Most of the reused clothing is exported to other countries.6 Oxam, a British charitable organization, estimates 70% of their clothing donations end up in Africa.7 The issue of sending used clothing to Africa has generated some degree of controversy as to the benefits of such initiatives, where it can have an adverse impact on local textile industries, native dress, and local waste generation.

The Recycling Process 

For the basics of recycling, read my article, How Clothing Recycling Works. For textiles to be recycled, there are fundamental differences between natural and synthetic fibers. For natural textiles:

  • The incoming unwearable material is sorted by type of material and color. Color sorting results in a fabric that does not need to be re-dyed. The color sorting means no re-dying is required, saving energy and avoiding pollutants.
  • Textiles are then pulled into fibers or shredded, sometimes introducing other fibers into the yarn. Materials are shredded or pulled into fibers. Depending on the end use of the yarn, other fibers may be incorporated.
  • The yarn is then cleaned and mixed through a carding process
  • Then the yarn is re-spun and ready for subsequent use in weaving or knitting. 
  • Some fibers are not spun into yards, however. Some are compressed for textile filling such as in mattresses.

In the case of polyester-based textiles, garments are shredded and then granulated for processing into polyester chips. These are subsequently melted and used to create new fibers for use in new polyester fabrics.

Beyond Recycling, Shop Sustainably

As society becomes more familiar with the hazards associated with sending old textiles to the landfill, and as new recycling technologies develop, it can be anticipated that the textile recycling industry will continue to grow. At the same time, watch for trends such as slow fashion to draw continued attention to the interplay of clothing and sustainability. The fast fashion industry generates considerable pollution and a sizeable negative impact on climate change. Consumers can help affect change by choosing clothing brands that last longer and which demonstrate a commitment to reducing their climate change impact.

BEST SITES LIKE ALIEXPRESS FOR ONLINE SHOPPING

AliExpress is a massively popular Chinese online retail service owned by Alibaba Group. It was launched in 2010 and hasn’t stopped its journey to becoming the ‘biggest online marketplace of the world‘ ever-since. AliExpress stands toe-to-toe even with Amazon in terms of buyers worldwide. It offers wholesale goods at direct-to-consumer prices from Chinese sellers.

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It also works as a great dropshipping model for a lot of e-commerce entrepreneurs. Along with a lot of good sides, AliExpress has some cons as well. The biggest problem is the shipping time of AliExpress orders, which is pretty long considering the goods come from China. Also, some orders can be very expensive after shipping charges and taxes.

So, it is a good thing to have some AliExpress alternatives whenever you don’t like its services. That’s why we are telling you about 21 best sites like AliExpress. Some of these websites offer cheaper prices and faster shipping on certain products. And, you can also use them to maintain a nice profit margin for your dropshipping business.

1. LIGHTINTHEBOX

LightInTheBox is the perfect AliExpress alternative as it is also a Chinese e-Store. It sells hot and trending products across the globe. Their products range from phone and electronics to fashion, jewelry, shoes, bags, and many other items. You can find almost anything here at a very cheap price.

The delivery time of LightInTheBox is also similar to AliExpress as their warehouses are located only in China. But, you may get a faster shipping time due to having fewer orders to ship. You can pay for your orders with PayPal, Western Union, or your credit card.

2. WISH

Wish is a widely popular online marketplace where you can buy almost anything. From clothing to footwear, electronics, healthcare items, and many more things, you can get them all for an incredibly cheap price. They are also known to offer great deals and coupons to their new customers.

Their shipping time is also faster than AliExpress as their products come from sellers located in small countries. Wish also provides an advanced rating system that is very helpful for both the consumers as well as sellers. It helps promote good ones.

3. OVERSTOCK

Overstock is a US-based online marketplace. It makes profit by selling wholesale products at a highly cheap price tag. A major portion of their stock is comprised of overstock from the major retailers or their seconds. You can find some really amusing deals here. The shipping time will also be lower as compared to the Chinese marketplaces. You can get your items within a week.

The product range of Overstock is incredible. You can find everything such as clothing, decor, kitchen appliances, and many more items. You can even find furniture and other big home items. So, you can use to fill your house with great stuff at a reduced price.

4. DEALEXTREME (DX)

DealeXtreme, more popularly known as DX, is an amazing online marketplace. The website works in a very similar manner as ‘Wish’ and sells cheap products coming directly from sellers. It has partnered with many small businesses and sells its products to a wide base of audience.

The shipping time is a problem with DX also because their warehouses are located in China. Apart from this, you can get some really worthy deals on DX. You should always keep an eye on their clearance sales for the best prices.

5. GEARBEST

Gearbest is the perfect AliExpress alternative if you are looking to shop for the latest gadgets or electronic devices. It works with over 5000 Chinese brands and top suppliers to deliver the best products. It has products from top Chinese companies such as Xiaomi, Huawei, Lenovo, and many others. But, it isn’t just an electronic store.

You can also find a massive range of other products as well. The prices available on GearBest are reduced, and you can even reduce them with the available coupons. They also have warehouses in multiple countries. So, you can get faster shipping from the local warehouse.

6. BANGGOOD

BangGood is another Chinese e-commerce platform that provides worldwide shipping of cheap goods. You can find almost anything on this website, from clothing to electronics, and even home items. The prices available are marked down from their original prices. You can also get amazing deals during special clearance sales.

BangGood provides a free $20 coupon to every new user. The shipping time for BangGood orders is faster than AliExpress for certain products. However, the regular shipping time is similar.

7. CHINABRANDS

ChinaBrands is a widely popular Chinese e-Store where you can buy products at wholesale prices. You can find almost anything on this website at a highly affordable price. Their shipping prices are also low but you will get a long shipping time. It is the perfect website for buyers who want the lowest prices but can wait for their orders for at least a month.

Most of the ChinaBrands sellers run their factories from China, and their warehouses are located there only. This is the reason for the considerably long shipping time.

8. BONANZA

Bonanza is a unique American online marketplace where you can find a great range of products. They have over 20 million items from more than 50,000 sellers. It is a growing e-commerce store where even you can sell your items. It is a preferred platform by more than 20,000 entrepreneurial sellers. You can find some really amazing handcrafted items and collectibles here.

For people looking to shop regular items, this store may disappoint you a little. The prices of some items may be a little higher than some Chinese stores. But, the quality provided will be worth it.

21 ALIEXPRESS ALTERNATIVE STORES

Here are 21 AliExpress Alternatives that you can use to shop online.

  1. LightInTheBox
  2. Wish
  3. Overstock
  4. DealXtreme (DX)
  5. GearBest
  6. BangGood
  7. ChinaBrands
  8. Bonanza
  9. DHGate
  10. TinyDeal
  11. Target
  12. MiniInTheBox
  13. GeekBuying
  14. Jet
  15. TomTop
  16. Target
  17. MadeInChina
  18. American Greenwood
  19. Walmart
  20. eBay
  21. Amazon

FINAL TAKE

AliExpress is amazing but it is always good to have options when you are shopping. So, these are the 21 best sites like AliExpress. If you ever feel like you should look somewhere else, these are some stores that you should visit. You can also use these for your dropshipping business if you are an aspiring entrepreneur. Make sure you have a solid plan before beginning.

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