We have reviewed the Stopping Distance Calculator For Trucks on this page for your satisfaction. You can browse the page for calculating stopping distance with acceleration guide. If you want the vehicle stopping distance calculator physics, then this post is most suited for you.
There are unfortunately many “multiple vehicle accidents” where we find collisions between trucks, minibuses, bakkies, cars etc. We could argue that a greater appreciation and understanding between drivers of the different modes of transport of the braking distances required for the different vehicles could be an important requirement for safer driving behaviour and increased road safety.
calculating stopping distance with acceleration
Stopping Distance Calculator For Trucks
We have offered advice to all road users about “sharing the road”. This is of importance especially in light of the fact that there is a lack of understanding amongst motorists of the braking distance required by truck drivers. Motorists tend to ignore the fact that truck drivers need a much longer distance to bring their vehicles to a stop – and truck drivers need to ensure that their vehicles are indeed capable of stopping within the required distance.Fleetwatch Magazine offered to assist with information on the stopping distances of trucks and has given permission to share their expertise on the Arrive Alive website. It’s worth repeating – stopping is just as vital as moving forward. No owner of any truck would like to be in an aircraft that runs out of runway on take-off. Why then do they let their drivers operate trucks that run out of stopping distance? If you are in trucking and do not understand the importance of stopping distance – the runway distance required to come to a halt – then why are you in this business asks our technical correspondent Dave Scott? The analogy of an aircraft that fails to take off and a truck that fails to stop are intertwined. An aircraft takeoff failure is a cascade of events – too few hours between bottle and throttle, load, poor judgment and over-confidence, mechanical defects, insufficient power, badly conducted flight pre-checks, unfavourable weather conditions, inadequate training, surface rolling resistance and gradients. In the case of an aircraft, each influencing factor lengthens the take-off distance but in the case of stopping a truck, the closing gap just gets longer when it should be shorter.
Stopping distances are critical
Trucks need distance to stop in an emergency but unthinking motorists on freeways take the gap and fill it. Five to 10 metres between a car bumper and a truck at 80kph is just not enough. Table 1 (below) shows a Utopian scenario at 80kph with everything in ‘perfect working order’ on a good surface with excellent weather/ visibility and using wide-awake drivers:
- Scenario 1 is a sports car fitted with an ABS braking system.
- Scenario 2 is a medium truck with vacuum/hydraulic brakes and no ABS system but everything is mechanically correct. However, braking efficiency is not as good as the sports car.
Medium trucks are driven like passenger cars and at 8,5t GVM, they can wreak havoc in an emergency due to the kinetic energy generated. The medium truck takes 40% longer to stop than the sports car. Do drivers really think of this?
Up the stakes
Now to reality in Table 2. Let’s up the stakes to 120kph. Remember that all trucks under 9t GVM are allowed to travel at 120kph under Road Traffic Act Regulation 293 (1).
- At 120kph, a perfectly-driven ABS equipped sports car takes longer to stop than in the scenario sketched out in Table 1.
- Scenario 2 here introduces badly maintained brakes at 30% efficiency and a tired driver with a 2-second reaction time. The brakes have heat-faded and loadsensing is not functioning.
At 120kph, the 8,5t GVM truck takes 124% longer to stop than the car. And how many 56t GCM rigs do you notice that far exceed the 80kph limit where the same laws of gravity apply? Driver reaction at 120kph is an absolute factor where one second’s travel is 33,33m. But because there is no traffic enforcement at night, everyone likes to up the speed level when even excellent headlights on a dipped beam reach a max of 60m. The point is that on a dipped beam at 120kph at night, if you see it you will hit it! Research conducted on SA roads in 1995 is more relevant than ever 14 years later.
A comprehensive report, 93/336 dated July 1995 titled ‘The influence of night driving and wet weather conditions on driver and vehicle abilities’, prepared for the Department of Transport (DoT) by BKS Inc. of Pretoria, comments that: ‘During the night, the frequency of collisions is three to four times higher than during the day…..darkness has an adverse effect on road safety, as both the severity and the frequency of collisions increase during this period.’ This is verified in a histogram published in the report covering a five year period titled ‘Association between frequency of collisions and light’. A fair estimate would increase the odds today – the chance of an accident at night is at least now four to five times greater than in daylight.
How Much Distance Does A Truck Driver Need To Come To A Complete Stop?
Assuming perfect conditions, perception distance is the distance your vehicle travels from the time your eyes see a hazard until your brain recognizes it. According to the CDL Manual, the average perception time for an alert driver is 1 3/4 seconds.
At 55 mph, this accounts for 142 feet traveled. Obviously, one of the key factors in stopping any vehicle in time is being alert and attentive. While attentive driving will not reduce perception time, it will greatly improve your stopping distance by identifying hazards quicker.
When your brain identifies a hazard, the message must be sent through the nervous system down to your foot telling it to move off the accelerator and press the brake. Your reaction distance is the distance your vehicle travels during that time.
The Illinois manual estimates that the average driver has a reaction time of a three-fourths second to one second. At 55 mph, this accounts for 61 feet traveled.
Finally, once you depress the brake, the car doesn’t stop immediately. The braking distance represents the distance your vehicle travels from the time you first depress the brake until the vehicle comes to a complete stop.
Add up all of those distances, and you will have your total stopping distance. Assuming perfect brakes and road conditions, the minimum stopping distance for a truck to be brought to a complete stop is 419 feet.
Other Conditions May Increase Stopping Distance
Outside of a truck driver’s own perception and reaction, there are many variables that will affect his ability to stop his truck.
In general, the faster you drive, the longer it will take you to stop. When you double your speed from 20 to 40 mph, the braking distance is four times longer. When you triple your speed from 20 mph to 60 mph, the braking distance is nine times longer.
The weight of the truck will also have a significant impact on braking distance. The heavier the vehicle, the more work the brakes must do to stop it, and the more heat they absorb. The brakes, tires, springs, and shock absorbers on heavy vehicles are designed to work best when the vehicle is fully loaded. Though it may seem counterintuitive, empty trucks require greater stopping distances because an empty vehicle has less traction.
Finally, road conditions can significantly increase braking distance. Slippery surfaces can cause skidding which can double braking distance.
Because stopping a fully loaded semi-tractor trailer is so different than your average sedan, it is essential that trucking companies utilize a robust training program. This program must include behind-the-wheel training in the type of vehicle the driver will be expected to drive to teach their drivers how to safely operate their trucks.
Before a driver is handed the keys to a large truck, the driver must be able to show that he or she understands safe following distances and braking factors.
vehicle stopping distance calculator physics
Used Car Websites
Buying a new or used vehicle is a big decision — both financially and in terms of the amount of time we spend in our cars. And wouldn’t you know it, there’s an app for that. Cars, trucks, and SUVs of all types can be found online today. You don’t even need to leave your couch to research, browse, inquire, and finance your next vehicle.
Here are some of the best used-car websites around.
Because it’s an aggregator (like Kayak.com), the easy-to-use Autolist site displays millions of vehicles from many different sources. Users can view details such as the length of time a given vehicle has been on the market, plus any price changes for that vehicle. Autolist has one of the highest-rated used-car apps available. It works with Android or iOS phones, and just like the website, it checks multiple online databases to help you locate your dream car. The app also has instant price-drop alerts and high-res pictures to help you find the best deals on the most local listings. Shoppers can even apply for financing. With family sharing, as many as six family members can share information through the app. Add to that reviews, industry insights, a Rotten Tomatoes-style aggregator of older vehicle reviews, and buyer’s guides to help steer you through the car-buying process.
Like some of the other websites here, AutoTempest’s search results are drawn from multiple sources. Their website and app work similarly to the others, including the ability to save searches. They have lots of other useful information as well, including an up-to-date blog, buying guides, and car reviews. While you can filter your searches, the criteria for doing so are much more limited, although some might consider it to be streamlined. Either way, the essential information is provided. Choices include make, model, distance, price, year, mileage, vehicle type, transmission, and whether it’s for sale from a private party or by a
Because Autotrader.com nearly predates the internet itself, its longstanding reputation has built up decades of trust. Available as a website since 1997, it has over 3 million listings drawn from 40,000 dealers and 250,000 private sellers, and its selection is immense. The website has a wide variety of filters that can help you narrow your search down to exactly the type of vehicle you’re looking for. You can save your searches and even apply for insurance and a loan.
Bring A Trailer used to be a listing of interesting cars for sale around the country, now it is a full-blown auction site, with rare and unusual vehicles selling for sometimes astounding figures. It is the place to find that social ride or merely kill endless amounts of time browsing high-dollar exotics and absurdly clean early 2000s commuters. Recently, a pristine 2000 Honda Civic SI sold for $50,000. If you are in the market for something unusual or are willing to pay top dollar for your dream car, check out BaT.
This is a company that seeks to build trust through transparency. You will find many of the same search options on their website as you’ll find on the other sites. However, you’ll also find the CarGurus valuation of a given vehicle based on typical search criteria on top of this. This algorithm is similar to the methods used by KBB. The information they use to make this determination includes comparable car listings and pricing data on vehicles that have recently sold. Ratings are based on mileage, trim, vehicle history, and a multitude of other factors. CarGurus rates each available car deal as being Overpriced, High, Fair, Good, or Great.
Carmax is a dealership specializing in high quality used cars, many available with the internet-famous Carmax warranty. This website isn’t the best for those looking for a killer deal because of their no-haggle policy, but it is an excellent place for people who want the most effortless car shopping and buying experience. For those looking for the ease of browsing and buying online, without the anxiety-inducing Craigslist test drive, Carmax can be a good option. Browse, buy, and the car can be ready for pick up, virtually all online or on their mobile app.
Cars.com is one of the largest automotive search engines. With thousands of listings covering almost every car, there is also a new tool that rates the value of used vehicles relative to the current market trends. Cars.com has fewer private sellers, but it’s a great way to search dealers in your area and compare pricing for similar vehicles. It also has extensive sorting options to narrow your search by the specs and features you are looking for and leaving out those you don’t want. In addition to consumer reviews, the site has now built up an extensive archive of expert reviews written by its editorial staff.
This site works to simplify buying a car, and like Autotrader and others on this list, they can help find financing. The search criteria include make, model, distance, price, mileage, year, color, engine, and even photo availability. CarsDirect also has buying guides, rankings, and vehicle comparisons. Like similar sites, you can save your searches and vehicles of interest. The website also has educational videos, including reviews, car news and reports, and tools that include a trade-in valuation.
Carvana is another used car dealer that built a business around making the buying experience easier. Buy with confidence with a 7-day money-back guarantee, and have the car delivered to your door. All Carvana vehicles have accident free vehicle history and pass a 150-point inspection. You can also sell your vehicle to Carvana, even without buying from them. They claim you will get a real offer after filling out a form, which takes just a couple of minutes. With used car values near all-time highs, it may be a good time to see what your car is worth to them. Carvana is also the inventor of the car vending machine for those looking to buy in person. It’s a neat gimmick worth checking out.
Primarily a classified site, Craigslist doesn’t have many fancy graphics or options, but the site’s selection is fairly broad, and postings usually include photos. You’ll need to be super savvy if you’re going this route because the site is rife with scammers, but it is possible to negotiate a worthwhile deal here. Search filters here include distance, price, make and model, year, mileage, condition, number of cylinders, drivetrain and fuel type, color, size, title status, vehicle type, and transmission type. A point of interest to some, some sellers on Craigslist might accept cryptocurrency like Bitcoin in exchange for the vehicle they’re selling. You can also create email alerts for the specific attributes of a vehicle that you’re looking for.
eBay Motors isn’t just an auction site for rare vehicles anymore. There are thousands of used and new cars listed by dealerships and private sellers to peruse using classified-style listings. Whether you are shopping for a custom show car or a late model Chevy, eBay likely has at least one of those vehicles. Other great searches on eBay motors include the “Replica/Kit Make” section, as well as the “Racecar (Not Street Legal)” category. Just be careful in terms of trusting sellers since eBay makes it difficult to recoup any monies lost to fraud or misrepresented vehicles. A pre-purchase inspection by an independent third party is highly recommended if you’re not able to see the vehicle yourself in person before buying.
Edmunds originated as a paperback booklet available at newsstands. Decades of experience have made this a well-respected name in the industry. The website allows you to save searches and favorites and also lets you filter your selections. Although their search functions look similar to the ones available on other sites, they often have more features and options to choose between. That allows buyers to narrow and refine more thoroughly. Edmunds also has a wealth of advice and articles to help educate people about the car-buying process and the vehicles themselves.
If you don’t mind a car with plenty of miles on it, Enterprise’s former rentals can be a good choice. They offer a no-questions-asked, seven-day “buyer’s remorse” period, in addition to their 12-month or 12,000-mile limited powertrain warranty and one year of roadside assistance. Enterprise also provides financing. Unlike most of the other sites mentioned here, the company sells cars only from one source: their retired rental fleets. They also take trade-ins and have special programs for college graduates or first-time car buyers. The website allows you to search by the monthly payment you can afford alongside the same criteria you’ll find on other sites.
For classic car, truck, or motorcycle collectors, this is a ‘don’t-miss’ destination. As well as vehicles, Hemmings helps you locate hard-to-find parts for project cars. Search for vehicles or parts by make, model, type, price range, and category. With more of a community feel to it, this site maintains a blog and regularly sends out newsletters. Hemmings also sells merchandise related to this niche market. They have an email list, fantastic videos, and special events, not to mention apps for Android and iOS, and several print publications to subscribe to.
The words “Blue Book price” have been a part of the American vocabulary for nearly a century, and the Kelley Blue Book website and app both trade on this longstanding name recognition. Not only are they known for providing accurate estimates of your car’s market value, but their site has tools for checking your credit score and calculating car payments too. Expert reviews, top ten lists, and recall postings make this site a longtime go-to favorite for automotive information. They also cover motorcycles, snowmobiles, and personal watercraft such as jet skis. KBB even has an instant cash offer section on their website.
Go electric with these top performers.
With the buzz around electric cars on everyone’s lips right now, it’s good to know it’s not just hype – these plug-in vehicles are fun, practical, and filled with the latest tech. Going electric means saying goodbye to fuel stops, and hello to instant torque. With range availability suited to your needs and no sacrifices when it comes to performance or personality, it’s possible to find an electric car that comfortably and confidently meets your requirements.
To help you on your search, we’ve compiled a list of the eight best used electric cars for 2021 shoppers.
- Mercedes-Benz B-Class
- Mitsubishi i-MiEV
- Chevrolet Spark EV
- Ford Focus Electric
- Mercedes-Benz B250e
- BMW i3
- Chevrolet Bolt EV
- Nissan Leaf
Looking for a Tesla? As more used models hit the market, we hope to review them in the future.
The Mercedes B-Class Electric Drive (2014–2015) is a front-wheel-drive hatchback with the upscale finishes Mercedes Benz does so well. The 2014–2015 models with the electric powertrain deliver an EPA-estimated 84 MPGe combined, with a full charge.1
The practical, spacious interior adapts to your daily around-town needs. Groceries are comfortably accommodated with 21.6 cu-ft of fixed cargo storage (2014–2015 models) while your passengers will appreciate the easy rear-row access of this four-door car.
The 2014–2015 B-Class models are available in one premium level trim. Standard features of the 2015 model include:
- Keyless entry and ignition
- Power-adjustable front seats with multi-driver seat memory
- Navigation system with voice control
- Seven-inch display screen
- Frontal-collision warning and mitigation
Looking for a confident city car with plenty of personality? Meet the Mitsubishi i-MiEV. Retired from the Mitsubishi lineup in 2017, this distinctive looking all-electric compact hatchback is worth seeking out.
Why? It’s built for the challenges that city life throws up. A short wheelbase (144.7 inches) and 30.8-ft turning circle (2016–2017 models) mean traffic gaps and tight parking spots are no problem. If your days are a regular mix of short errands or work and play commutes, you’ll have no problem with range. A fully-charged 2017 i-MiEV has an EPA-estimated range of 62 miles on a full charge.2
The 2016–2017 i-MiEV can comfortably accommodate four adult passengers. With 13.2 cu-ft of cargo storage behind the rear seats, there’s also space for everyone’s gym bags, groceries, and shopping totes. The 2017 i-MiEV has one trim level (ES); noted features include:
- Approaching vehicle audible system
- Heated front seats
- Level 3 DC quick charge port
- Automatic headlights
- Six-speaker sound system with auxiliary jack and CD player
The 2014–2016 Chevrolet Spark EV is a lively subcompact four-seater hatchback that’s a cool companion car for daily urban commuters, as well as a smart choice for weekend fun. The 2016 Spark EV features a 18.4-kWh lithium-ion battery, delivering a zero-to-60 mph time of 7.2 seconds (according to the manufacturer, when new), and an EPA-estimated range of 82 miles with a full charge.2
The Spark EV story doesn’t end there—there’s an optional DC fast charge port available, 9.6 cu-ft of cargo space behind the rear seats (all 2016 models), and some flashy exterior colors, including Lime metallic and Salsa red (2016, 2LT trim).
Chevy’s 2016 base Spark EV 1LT model includes these standard features:
- Seven-inch central touchscreen
- Bluetooth® connectivity and smartphone integration
- Keyless ignition and entry
- Available OnStar services, including automatic crash notification (activation required)3
- Cruise control
The Focus Electric (2012–2018) is an upscale compact car that’s built to please drivers and passengers alike, so it’s no surprise to find it on a list of top electric cars. The 2017–2018 five-seat hatchback model runs on a 33.5 kWh lithium-ion battery, delivering 143 hp, and an EPA-estimated range of 115 miles with a full charge.2 If you make a regular cross-town commute or like to plan weekends away, then you’re covered with the Focus Electric’s capabilities.
In addition to its reassuring road manners, the 2018 Focus Electric has the tech and comforts of a premium trim model as standard, including regenerative braking, ambient interior lighting, and available leather upholstery. The 2017–2018 Ford Focus Electric is offered in a single trim and has some impressive standard features, including:
- 14.2 cu-ft of cargo space
- Rearview camera
- Eight-inch touchscreen
- Sony® premium speakers
- Tire pressure monitoring
Shop Best Used Electric Cars Near You
The 2016–2017 Mercedes-Benz B250e enters our list as a rebadged evolution of the B-Class Electric Drive. With an unchanged drivetrain (132-kilowatt electric motor and 28-kWh battery), the 2016–2017 model delivers 177 horsepower, taking it from zero to 60 mph in an impressive 6.7 seconds.
The 2017 B250e has an EPA-estimated 87 miles of range on a full charge.2 The battery is unobtrusively positioned under the floor, meaning there’s a generous amount of cargo space (21.6 cu-ft). Got more to carry? The rear seats fold almost flat, increasing your available storage space to 51.4 cu-ft. Such capability makes the 2016–2017 B250e ideal for city-dwelling families, weekend activities, and more.
The 2016–2017 B250e is available in a single premium trim. Standard features include:
- 17-inch alloy wheels
- Steering wheel-mounted paddle shifters
- Forward collision mitigation
- Driver attention monitor
- Seven-inch display screen
BMW broke new ground in 2014 with the arrival of their compact four-seat electric hatchback, the i3. Since then, this sassy city car has never looked back. Just like the track cars many drivers idolize, the i3 has a lightweight carbon fiber chassis. When matched to the larger 33-kWh battery introduced for the 2017 model, the i3 offers power and practicality in one fun-filled package.
The 2017–2019 i3 has 15.1 cu-ft of cargo storage for groceries or weekend luggage, and easy-access rear-hinged doors for your second-row passengers. Planning a trip? Flip down the rear seating to open up a full 36.9 cu-ft of storage. Standard 2017–2019 i3 models have an EPA-estimated range of 114 miles from a full charge.2
If you’re inclined to want more range assurance, the 2014–2020 i3 can be equipped with a gasoline-powered range extender. The 2017–2018 i3 base models come standard with:
- 19-inch alloy wheels
- Keyless ignition and entry
- Level 3 DC fast-charging capability
- 6.5-inch display screen
- Adaptive cruise control
The Chevrolet Bolt EV was introduced in 2017. It set out to disrupt the market with a supersized battery powertrain, and blockbuster range figures. 2017–2019 models run on an impressive 60kWh battery conveniently housed under the floor. This powertrain delivers a raring-to-go 200 hp and 266 lb-ft of torque. Put your foot down and go from zero to 60 mph in just 6.5 seconds. Incidentally, that low-riding battery pack lends drive stability, and it doesn’t impact on storage space either; all 2017–2019 have 16.9 cu-ft of cargo space.
On a full charge, the 2017–2019 Bolt EV has an EPA-estimated range of 238 miles.2 This makes it an excellent choice for if you regularly drive longer distances and like to say yes to unexpected adventures.
The 2017–2019 Chevy Bolt EV is offered in two trim levels (LT, Premier). Both have useful tech features and thoughtful comfort touches, including:
- Apple CarPlay® and Android Auto™ integration
- Automatic climate control
- 10.2-inch touchscreen
- Optional driver confidence packages
- Available OnStar communication services (activation required)3
Taking the number one slot in our top eight is the Nissan LEAF, a five-passenger hatchback that debuted in 2011. Now in its second generation (from 2018), the Nissan LEAF is available in three trims: S, SV, and SL. All are outfitted with a 110-kilowatt electric motor and 40 kWh lithium-ion battery powertrain, delivering an EPA-estimated range of 150 miles from a full charge.2
The LEAF is a practical choice through and through. LEAF stands for “Leading Environmentally-friendly Affordable Family car,” after all. The 2017–2019 base S trim is well-equipped, but Nissan helpfully offers a wide choice of available options and packages so you’ll be able to find a model that suits you. Add in an ambitious amount of cargo storage (23.6 cu-ft of cargo space behind the rear seats) and you have a worthy daily commuter car.
Looking for more range? In 2019, the LEAF Plus model was added to the lineup. Its powerful electric motor provides an impressive 214 hp, with the 60 kWh battery delivering an EPA-estimated range of 226 miles on a full charge.2
Standard features on the 2018–2019 LEAF mid-range SV trim include:
- DC fast-charger port
- Seven-inch touchscreen
- Forward collision warning
- Apple CarPlay and Android Auto integration
- Adaptive cruise control
Whichever battery-powered vehicle from this list peaks your interest, you can feel confident it’ll fit your green-conscious lifestyle. With this updated list for 2021 shoppers in hand, consider this your first step in finding an all-electric vehicle that suits not only your driving requirements, but your personality, too.